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Unformatted text preview: Ingrid Shih BIO 1306-04 25 February 2011 Chapter 56 Species I n teractions and Coevolution 56.1 What Types of Interactions do Ecologists Study? Antagonistic interactions- one species benefits and the other is harmed o Predation o Herbivory o Parasitism o Pathogens Mutualism- both species benefit Competition interactions in which >2 species use the same resource (Antagonistic) Commensalism- one benefits but other is neutral Amensalism- one participant is unaffected while the other is harmed. E.g. Elephants in a forest crush insects and plants with each step but the elephants are unaffected Boundaries b/t the categories are not always clear Reciprocal Adaptation/Coevolution o Adaptation is one species may lead to evolution of an adaptation in a species it interacts with o A coevolution arms race is a series of reciprocal adaptations Selection on predator Change in prey Selection on predator Etc. Coevolution likely if interaction o Occurs predictably o With high frequency over time o Have a strong effect on the interacting species Predator-prey interactions o Predators: Larger Stronger Faster Complex behaviors (web weavings) Venomous o Prey Escape behavior Ingrid Shih BIO 1306-04 25 February 2011 Morphological defenses Tough skin, spins, hair, shells Chemical defenses Ex: Fireants Camouflage o Aposematism: bright coloration or warning signs in toxic prey Predators learn to recognize and avoid the toxic prey species...
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