LS1a_F08_Lecture_Notes_11-18_part2-1

LS1a_F08_Lecture_Notes_11-18_part2-1 - In the absence of...

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1 In the absence of enzymes, many biologically essential chemical reactions proceed at rates (right) that are far too slow to sustain life. Enzymes dramatically accelerate these reactions. For example, HIV protease (left) accelerates the rate of peptide hydrolysis by more than one billion-fold. At the molecular level, how do enzymes accelerate reactions so effectively?
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2 Over the last several lectures we learned the molecular structure of proteins and amino acids, how proteins are made in the cell following a DNA-encoded program, how the amino acids that make up proteins can fold into the complex three-dimensional structures of proteins, and how proteins encoded by the HIV genome can enable HIV to enter and hijack a human cell. In this section of the course we will focus in detail on just one HIV protein that is crucial to HIV propagation, called HIV protease . During these lectures we will learn the molecular basis of how HIV protease accomplishes its essential job. Along the way, we will also reveal the major ways in which proteins mediate the chemical reactions underlying life.
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3 1. The function and structure of HIV protease Introduction to proteases HIV makes only three different “ polyprotein ” molecules which eventually become all of the structural proteins and enzymes of the virus. These three polyproteins, Gag, Gag-Pro-Pol, and Env, are the
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This document was uploaded on 03/23/2011.

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LS1a_F08_Lecture_Notes_11-18_part2-1 - In the absence of...

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