Civil-Law-BarQA-2009-2017 (1).pdf - CIVIL LAW TABLE OF CONTENTS I Effect and Application of Laws(Civil Code 1 Include Conflict of Laws(Private

Civil-Law-BarQA-2009-2017 (1).pdf - CIVIL LAW TABLE OF...

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Unformatted text preview: CIVIL LAW TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Effect and Application of Laws (Civil Code) ................................................................... 1 Include: Conflict of Laws (Private International Law) ...................................................... 3 II. Human Relations (Arts. 19-22, Civil Code) ..................................................................... 8 Exclude: Independent civil actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) ............................................................................ 9 II. Marriage (Family Code) ............................................................................................... 12 Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Articles 12-19, 23-25 (Family Code) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. No. 6955, entitled “An Act to Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices x x x”; R.A. No. 9208 or the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation (Family Code) .................................................................................. 32 Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC, or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife (Family Code) .............................. 34 Exclude: R.A. No. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. No. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. No. 9710, or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses (Family Code) ........................................................ 34 VI. The Family ................................................................................................................... 45 VII. Paternity and Filiation (Family Code) ........................................................................... 45 VIII. Adoption ...................................................................................................................... 50 A. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R.A. No. 8552) ...................................................... 50 Exclude: 1. Rule on Adoption (A.M. No. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. R.A. No. 9523, entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development to Declare a ‘Child Legally Available for Adoption’ as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings x x x.” B. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R.A. No. 8043) ........................................... 54 Exclude: Articles 183-188, 191-193 (Family Code) IX. Support (Family Code) ................................................................................................ 54 X. Parental Authority (Family Code) ................................................................................. 57 Exclude: 1. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A.M. No. 03-02-05-SC) 2. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A.M. No. 03-04-04-SC) 3. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R.A. No. 8972) 4. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R.A. No. 8980) Exclude: R.A. No. 9231, entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child x x x,” which will be covered under Labor Law Include: Child Abuse Law (R.A. No. 7610) ................................................................... 60 XI. Emancipation (Arts. 234 and 236, Family Code, as amended by R.A. No. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. 256) Exclude: Arts. 254-255, 257 (Family Code) XIV. Funerals (Arts. 305-310, Civil Code) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. 356-363, Civil Code) XV. Use of Surnames.......................................................................................................... 60 Arts. 364-369, 369-380, Civil Code (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. Absence (Art. 43, Civil Code; Art. 41, Family Code) XVII. Civil Registrar ............................................................................................................... 61 Exclude: Act No. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. No. 9048 PROPERTY I. II. III. IV. V. Characteristics ............................................................................................................. 61 Classification ................................................................................................................ 63 Ownership.................................................................................................................... 65 Accession .................................................................................................................... 67 Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property ............................................................................................... 73 VI. Co-ownership ............................................................................................................... 73 VII. Possession .................................................................................................................. 75 VIII. Usufruct ....................................................................................................................... 77 IX. Easements ................................................................................................................... 78 X. Nuisance ...................................................................................................................... 81 XI. Modes of Acquiring Ownership ..................................................................................... 81 PRESCRIPTION I. II. III. Definition No prescription applicable Prescription or limitation of actions ................................................................................ 86 OBLIGATIONS I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Definition Elements of an Obligation ............................................................................................. 87 Different Kinds of Prestations Classification of Obligations .......................................................................................... 87 Sources of Obligations ................................................................................................. 88 Nature and Effect of Obligations ................................................................................... 88 Kinds of Civil Obligations .............................................................................................. 91 Joint and Solidary Obligation ........................................................................................ 91 Extinguishment of Obligations....................................................................................... 94 CONTRACTS I. II. III. IV. V. Essential Requisites ................................................................................................... 100 Kinds of Contracts ...................................................................................................... 100 Formality .................................................................................................................... 104 Defective Contracts .................................................................................................... 106 Effect of Contracts ...................................................................................................... 108 SALES I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. Definition and Essential Requisites of a Contract of Sale ............................................ 109 Parties to a Contract of Sale ....................................................................................... 114 Subject Matter ............................................................................................................ 116 Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership .......................................................... 116 Price .......................................................................................................................... 117 Formation of Contract of Sale ..................................................................................... 119 Transfer of Ownership ................................................................................................ 123 Risk of Loss ............................................................................................................... 123 Documents of Title ..................................................................................................... 123 Remedies of an Unpaid Seller .................................................................................... 123 Performance of Contract ............................................................................................ 124 Warranties ................................................................................................................. 125 Breach of Contract ..................................................................................................... 125 Extinguishment of the Sale ......................................................................................... 125 The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P.D. 957) .................. 126 The Condominium Act (R.A. No. 4726) ...................................................................... 126 Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R.A. No. 8792); Public Land Law, Retail Trade and Liberalization Act, Bulk Sales Law (Act No. 3952) SUCCESSION I. II. III. IV. General Provisions ..................................................................................................... 126 Testamentary Succession .......................................................................................... 126 Legal or Intestate Succession.................................................................................... 136 Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession ........................................... 145 Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. 1058-1060, Civil Code), which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Contract of Partnership .............................................................................................. 147 Rights and Obligations of Partnership ......................................................................... 151 Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves .............................................. 151 Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons .................................................. 151 Dissolution ................................................................................................................. 152 Limited Partnership..................................................................................................... 153 AGENCY I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. Definition of Agency.................................................................................................... 153 Powers....................................................................................................................... 153 Express vs. Implied Agency Agency by Estoppel General vs. Special Agency Agency Couched in General Terms ............................................................................ 153 Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney .............................................................. 153 Agency by Operation of Law Rights and Obligations of Principal ............................................................................. 155 Irrevocable Agency ..................................................................................................... 155 Modes of Extinguishment ........................................................................................... 156 COMPROMISE I. II. III. Definition Void Compromise ....................................................................................................... 156 Effect CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Loan .......................................................................................................................... 156 Deposit ...................................................................................................................... 159 Guaranty and Suretyship ............................................................................................ 160 Pledge ....................................................................................................................... 162 Real Mortgage ........................................................................................................... 164 Include: Act 3135, as amended by R.A. No. 4118....................................................... 170 Antichresis ................................................................................................................. 174 Chattel Mortgage ....................................................................................................... 175 Include: Act 1508 ....................................................................................................... 175 VIII. Quasi-contracts.......................................................................................................... 178 IX. Concurrence and Preference of Credits LEASE I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Lease of Things Lease of Work or Services ......................................................................................... 178 Lease of Rural and Urban Lands ................................................................................ 179 Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee ............................................................. 179 Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands............................................................ 183 Household Service (Exclude, for inclusion in Labor Law) Contract of Labor (Exclude, for inclusion in Labor Law) Contract for Piece of Work (Exclude, for inclusion in Labor Law) LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Torrens System.......................................................................................................... 183 Regalian Doctrine....................................................................................................... 183 Citizenship Requirement ............................................................................................ 184 Original Registration ................................................................................................... 184 Subsequent Registration ............................................................................................ 188 Non-registrable Properties .......................................................................................... 188 Dealings with Unregistered Lands .............................................................................. 188 Exclude: 1. History of land laws 2. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. Registration of judgments, orders and partitions 4. Assurance fund 5. Registration of patents 6. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. Consultas TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. Principles ................................................................................................................... 190 Classification of Torts The Tortfeasor ........................................................................................................... 195 Act of Omission and its Modalities .............................................................................. 195 Proximate Cause ....................................................................................................... 196 Legal Injury Intentional Torts Negligence................................................................................................................. 196 Special Liability in Particular Activities Strict Liability .............................................................................................................. 197 Book II--Damages I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. General Considerations .............................................................................................. 198 Actual and Compensatory Damages .......................................................................... 199 Moral Damages ......................................................................................................... 200 Nominal Damages ..................................................................................................... 201 Temperate or Moderate Damages .............................................................................. 201 Liquidated Damages Exemplary or Corrective Damages ............................................................................. 201 Damages in Case of Death ........................................................................................ 202 Graduation of Damages Miscellaneous Rules .................................................................................................. 202 I. Effect and Application of Laws (Civil Code) Congress passed a law imposing taxes on income earned out of a particular activity that was not previously taxed. The law, however, taxed incomes already earned within the fiscal year when the law took effect. Is the law valid? (2011 BAR) (A) (B) (C) (D) No, because laws are intended to be prospective, not retroactive. No, the law is arbitrary in that it taxes income that has already been spent. Yes, since tax laws are the lifeblood of the nation. Yes, tax laws are an exception; they can be given retroactive effect. The doctrine of stare decisis prescribes adherence to precedents in order to promote the stability of the law. But the doctrine can be abandoned (2011 BAR) (A) When adherence to it would result in the Government’s loss of its case. (B) When the application of the doctrine would cause great prejudice to a foreign national. (C) When necessary to promote the passage of a new law. (D) When the precedent has ceased to be beneficial and useful. Include: Conflict of Laws (Private International Law) Q: Ted, married to Annie, went to Canada to work. Five (5) years later, Ted became a naturalized Canadian citizen. He returned to the Philippines to convince Annie to settle in Canada. Unfortunately, Ted discovered that Annie and his friend Louie were having an affair. Deeply hurt, Ted returned to Canada and filed a petition for divorce which was granted. In December 2013, Ted decided to marry his childhood friend Corazon in the Philippines. In preparation for the wedding, Ted went to the Local Civil Registry of Quezon City where his marriage contract with Annie was registered. He asked the Civil Register to annotate the decree of divorce on his marriage contract with Annie. However, he was advised by the National Statistics Office (NSO) to file a petition for judicial recognition of the decree of divorce in the Philippines. Is it necessary for Ted to file a petition for judicial recognition of the decree of divorce he obtained in Canada before he can contract a second marriage in the Philippines? (2014 BAR) A: YES, a divorce decree even if validly obtained abroad cannot have effect in the Philippines unless it is judicially recognized through an appropriate petition filed before Philippine courts. The foreigner must file a petition under Rule 108 and prove therein the fact of divorce by presenting an official copy attested by the officer...
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