Chem1201PReviewCh4 - Chemistry 1201 Review/Preview Chapter...

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Chemistry 1201 Review/Preview Chapter Four Review Guide Dr. Saundra McGuire Spring 2007 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry I. General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A. Definitions 1. Solutions - homogeneous mixtures 2. Solute - the substance that is dissolved (present in the smaller amount). 3. Solvent - the dissolving substance (present in the larger amount) B. Electrolytic Properties Electrolytes are substances that when dissolved in water, form ions and produce a solution that will conduct electricity. Strong electrolytes ionize completely and produce a strong current; weak electrolytes ionize partially and produce a weak current. 1. Strong Electrolytes Strong electrolytes, which completely break into ions in water, are the strong acids, the strong bases, and soluble salts. The strong acids that you should know are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 , and HClO 3 . The strong bases are the hydroxides of the Group IA and IIA metals (except Be). Soluble salts break into ions when placed in water, and the water molecules surround the ions in a process called solvation. (See pages 122 and 123 of the text for a more complete discussion.) 2. Weak Electrolytes Weak electrolytes, which only partially break into ions in water, are the weak acids and weak bases. The weak acids are those that are not strong. Some common weak bases are NH 3 and other compounds that contain nitrogen, hydrogen, and/or carbon, such as CH 3 NH 2 . When weak electrolytes dissolve in water, the dissociation is written as a double arrow because the process is an equilibrium process. (See page 125 of the text.) 3. Nonelectrolytes - Substances that do not produce ions when dissolved
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course CHE 1201 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '09 term at UC Davis.

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Chem1201PReviewCh4 - Chemistry 1201 Review/Preview Chapter...

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