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Chem1201PReviewCh13

Chem1201PReviewCh13 - Chemistry 1201 Review/Preview Chapter...

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Chemistry 1201 Review/Preview Chapter Thirteen Review Guide Dr. Saundra McGuire Spring 2007 Director, Center for Academic Success Adj. Prof., Dept. of Chemistry Properties of Solutions I. The Solution Process A. Terms and Concepts Defining Solutions 1. Solutions - homogeneous mixtures 2. Solute - the substance that is dissolved (present in the smaller amount). 3. Solvent - the dissolving substance (present in the larger amount). 4. Solvation – the interactions between the solute and solvent 5. Hydration – the interactions between a solute and water B. Types of Solutions 1. Solid – Solid 2. Solid – Liquid 3. Liquid - Liquid 4. Liquid – Gas 5. Solid – Gas 7. Gas - Gas C. Energy Change and the Solution Process The overall enthalpy change when forming a solution, H soln , involves three steps: 1. Separation of the solute molecules 2. Separation of the solvent molecules 3. Formation of interactions between the solute and the solvent The overall enthalpy is calculated by adding the enthalpy changes for the three steps: H soln = H 1 + H 2 + H 3 H 1 and H 2 are always positive values, and H 3 is always a negative value. The heat of solution can be positive or negative, depending on the size of the individual H values. The sizes of the individual H values depend on the strength of the solute-solute, solvent-solvent, and solute-solvent intermolecular attractive forces. D. Solution Formation, Spontaneity, and Disorder Entropy is the amount of disorder in system. Changes that result in an increase in entropy tend to occur spontaneously. Because the formation of solutions results in an increase in entropy, solutions will form spontaneously unless the solute-solute and solvent-solvent interactions are too strong.
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