Chem1202PReviewCh16

Chem1202PReviewCh16 - Chemistry 1202 Review/Preview Chapter...

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Chemistry 1202 Review/Preview Chapter Sixteen Review Guide Dr. Saundra McGuire Spring 2007 Director, Center for Academic Success Adj. Prof., Dept. of Chemistry I. Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids were originally defined by Arrhenius as substances that produce H + ions in water. Bases were defined by Arrhenius as substances that produce OH - ions in water. II. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acids are proton donors; bases are proton acceptors. Conjugate acid-base pairs differ only in that the acid contains one more proton than the base. e.g. HCN (acid) and CN - (base) The stronger an acid, the weaker its conjugate base. See section 16.2 and pages 670 to 676 of the text for more information and examples. III. The Autoionization of Water Water can act as an acid or a base, and one molecule of water can react as an acid with another molecule that acts as the base, according to the following reaction: H 2 O H + + OH - For aqueous solutions, [H+] [OH-] = K w = 1.0 X 10 -14 at 25 C ˚ In a neutral solution, [H+] = [OH-] = 1.0 X 10 -7 IV. The pH Scale The concentration of H + in a solution is indicated by the pH. A. Calculating pH, pOH, [H+], [OH-] pH = -log [H+]; pOH = -log[OH-]; [H+] = 10 -pH ; [OH-] = 10 -pOH (Note that 10 -X = antilog of –x) pOH + pH = 14 For acidic solutions, pH < 7; for basic solutions, pH > 7; for neutral solutions, pH = 7 B. The pH can be measured using a pH meter (See Figure 16.6), acid-base indicators, or litmus paper. V. Strong Acids and Bases A. Strong acids and bases are almost completely dissociated in aqueous solutions. The strong acids that should be memorized and recognized are, HCl, HBr, HI, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , HClO 3 , and HClO 4 . B.
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course CHE 1201 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '09 term at UC Davis.

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Chem1202PReviewCh16 - Chemistry 1202 Review/Preview Chapter...

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