Review Sheet Political science

Review Sheet Political science - Review Sheet: Exam 1...

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Review Sheet: Exam 1 Checks and Balances- To prevent one branch from becoming supreme, protect the "opulent minority" from the majority and to induce the branches to cooperate, governance systems that employ a separation of powers need a way to balance each of the branches Collective Action Problem- The economic theory of collective action is concerned with the provision of public goods (and other collective consumption) through the collaboration of two or more individuals, and the impact of externalities on group behavior Conservative Culture Wars- The culture war (or culture wars ) in American usage is a metaphor used to claim that political conflict is based on sets of conflicting cultural values. The term frequently implies a conflict between those values considered traditional or conservative and those considered progressive or liberal Economic Individualism- The doctrine of economic individualism holds that each individual should be allowed autonomy in making his or her own economic decisions as opposed to those decisions being made by the state , or the community , for him or her. Factions- A political faction is a grouping of individuals, such as a political party , a trade union , or other group with a political purpose. A faction or political party may include fragmented sub-factions, “parties within a party," which may be referred to as power blocs, or voting blocs. Federalism- The term federalism is also used to describe a system of the government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (like states or provinces). Free Market- A free market is a market in which there is no economic intervention and regulation by the state , except to uphold private contracts and the ownership of property. Free Rider Problem- "free riders" are those who consume more than their fair share of a public resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. Free riding is usually considered to be an economic "problem" only when it leads to the non-production or under-production of a public good Government – the system for implementing decisions made through the political process Ideology- a cohesive set of ideas and beliefs used to organize and evaluate the political world Liberal- Libertarians- any political position that advocates a radical redistribution of power Melting Pot- Politics- the process that determines what government does Positive Externalities- benefits created by a public good that are shared by the primary consumer of the good and by the society more generally Public Goods- services or actions (such as protecting the environment) that once provided to one person become available to everyone. Government is typically needed to provide public goods because they will be under-produced by the free market Redistributive Tax Policy- Policies, generally favored by the Democratic politicians, in which taxation is used to attempt to create greater social equality, i.e. higher taxation of the rich to provide programs for the poor.
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course POLS 1300 taught by Professor Newton during the Spring '11 term at Texas Tech.

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Review Sheet Political science - Review Sheet: Exam 1...

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