Midterm 3 Material

Midterm 3 Material - Midterm 3 Material Erythrocytes Red...

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Midterm 3 Material Erythrocytes Red blood cells (RBC) 99% of the cells in the blood In males On average 5.4 million RBC/microliter 47% of the volume of the blood (hematocrit) In females On average 4.8 million RBC/microliter 42% of the volume of the blood (hematocrit) Males have a larger hematocrit because testosterone stimulate RBC production Red Blood Cell 8.6 micrometers in diameter (measured from a wet slide to preserve size) Granulocytes White blood cells (leukocytes) Have granules in the cytoplasm Granulocytes are named for what can stain them Neutrophil Can be stained by both acid and base 60-70% of white blood cell count Can be segmented or banded 1 st numerous Eosinophil Can be stained by acid 1-4% of WBC count 4 th most numerous Basophil Can be stained by base 5 th most numerous Monocytes Have kidney shaped nucleus Have vacuoles 3 rd most numerous Agranulocytes Lymphocytes Have to do with immunity 10-20% of WBC 2 nd most numerous Platelets Have to do with clotting Are a pieces of cells 2-4 micrometers in diameter 250,000-500,000 per microliter The Heart Located in mediastinum
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Area in thoracic cavity that is between the lungs Center of mass is slightly to the left of sternum Surrounded by a pericardium Fibrous pericardium Sheet of fibrous connective tissue that completely surrounds heart Doesn’t connect to heart, partially attached to diaphragm Serosal pericardium Parietal and visceral side Parietal touches the fibrous pericardium Visceral side is the same as the epicardium of the heart Outer surface of heart is epicardium Middle layer is myocardium Inner layer is endocardium Continuous with epithelial cells of blood vessels Cardiac muscle Are striated Shorter and smaller in diameter than skeletal muscles Only have one nucleus Connect end to end Muscle cells can branch Have gap junctions Means that if one muscle cell fires, the ones around it will also fire Intercalated disk Connects one cell to the next Triads Occur over Z disk in cardiac muscles Titin 2 isoforms N2-A Found in skeletal muscles N2-B Has an expansion area that increases tension as it expands Found in cardiac muscles Atrioles Can secrete hormone, Atria natriuretic factor Ventrioles Grooves of the heart Called sulci (sulcus, singular) Coronary sulcus Separates atriums from ventricles Anterior interventricular sulcus Posterior interventricular sulcus Crux Where the coronary and posterior interventricular sulci meet Inside the heart Vena cava
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Superior and inferior Atrium Sinus venarum Smooth area in the back Interatrial septum Crista terminalis Ridge that comes off interatrial septum Separates sinus venarum from pectinate muscle Atrium proper Space anterior to the crista terminalis of the right atrium SA node In between sinus venarum and atrium proper Right auricle Looks like an ear but isn’t A finger like appendage It’s on the atrial proper side Has pectinate muscle Ensures that blood never stops flowing Ventricle Atrial ventricular (AV) valve Papillary muscles Chordae tendineae
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Midterm 3 Material - Midterm 3 Material Erythrocytes Red...

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