infchi psych - chapter 3 notes

infchi psych - chapter 3 notes - Chapter 3 Notes Biology...

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Chapter 3 Notes Biology and Behavior Nature and Nurture Genome – the complete set of genes of any organism Genetic and Environmental Forces Genotype – the genetic material an individual inherits Phenotype – the observable expression of the genotype, including both body characteristics and behavior Environment – every aspect of an individual and his or her surroundings other than genes 1. Parent’s Genotype-Child’s Genotype Chromosomes – molecules of DNA that transmit genetic information. Chromosomes are made up of DNA. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – molecules that carry all the biochemical instructions involved in the formation and functioning of an organism Genes – sections of chromosomes that are the basic unit of heredity in all living things Sex determination Sex chromosomes – the chromosomes (X and Y) that determine an individual’s gender Diversity and individuality Mutation – a change in a section of DNA Crossing over – the process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to the other. Crossing over promotes variability among individuals. 2. Child’s Genotype-Child’s Phenotype Gene expression: Developmental changes Regulator genes – genes that control the activity of other genes Gene expression: Dominance patterns Alleles – two or more different forms of a gene Dominant allele – the allele that, if present, gets expressed Recessive allele – the allele that is not expressed if a dominant allele is present Homozygous – having two of the same allele for a trait Heterozygous – having two different alleles for a trait Polygenic inheritance – inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene Child’s Environment-Child’s Phenotype
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Norm of reaction – all the phenotypes that can theoretically result from a given
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course PSYCH 331 taught by Professor Carpenter during the Fall '07 term at Rutgers.

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infchi psych - chapter 3 notes - Chapter 3 Notes Biology...

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