AppD - D.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 D.5 D.6 D.7 D.8 Introduction Signal...

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D.1 Introduction D-2 D.2 Signal Processing and Embedded Applications: The Digital Signal Processor D-5 D.3 Embedded Benchmarks D-12 D.4 Embedded Multiprocessors D-14 D.5 Case Study: The Emotion Engine of the Sony Playstation 2 D-15 D.6 Case Study: Sanyo VPC-SX500 Digital Camera D-19 D.7 Case Study: Inside a Cell Phone D-20 D.8 Concluding Remarks D-25
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D Embedded Systems Updated by Thomas M. Conte North Carolina State University “Where a calculator on the ENIAC is equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1,000 vacuum tubes and perhaps weigh 1 1/2 tons.” Popular Mechanics March 1949
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D-2 n Appendix D Embedded Systems Embedded computer systems—computers lodged in other devices where the presence of the computers is not immediately obvious—are the fastest-growing portion of the computer market. These devices range from everyday machines (most microwaves, most washing machines, printers, network switches, and auto- mobiles contain simple to very advanced embedded microprocessors) to hand- held digital devices (such as PDAs, cell phones, and music players) to video game consoles and digital set-top boxes. Although in some applications (such as PDAs) the computers are programmable, in many embedded applications the only programming occurs in connection with the initial loading of the application code or a later software upgrade of that application. Thus, the application is care- fully tuned for the processor and system. This process sometimes includes lim- ited use of assembly language in key loops, although time-to-market pressures and good software engineering practice restrict such assembly language coding to a fraction of the application. Compared to desktop and server systems, embedded systems have a much wider range of processing power and cost—from systems containing low-end 8- bit and 16-bit processors that may cost less than a dollar, to those containing full 32-bit microprocessors capable of operating in the 500 MIPS range that cost approximately 10 dollars, to those containing high-end embedded processors that cost hundreds of dollars and can execute several billions of instructions per sec- ond. Although the range of computing power in the embedded systems market is very large, price is a key factor in the design of computers for this space. Perfor- mance requirements do exist, of course, but the primary goal is often meeting the performance need at a minimum price, rather than achieving higher performance at a higher price. Embedded systems often process information in very different ways from general-purpose processors. Typically these applications include deadline-driven constraints—so-called real-time constraints. In these applications, a particular computation must be completed by a certain time or the system fails (there are other constraints considered real time, discussed in the next subsection).
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AppD - D.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 D.5 D.6 D.7 D.8 Introduction Signal...

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