AppE - E.1 E.2 E.3 E.4 E.5 E.6 E.7 E.8 E.9 E.10 E.11 E.12...

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E.1 Introduction E-2 E.2 Interconnecting Two Devices E-5 E.3 Connecting More than Two Devices E-20 E.4 Network Topology E-29 E.5 Network Routing, Arbitration, and Switching E-45 E.6 Switch Microarchitecture E-55 E.7 Practical Issues for Commercial Interconnection Networks E-62 E.8 Examples of Interconnection Networks E-70 E.9 Internetworking E-80 E.10 Crosscutting Issues for Interconnection Networks E-85 E.11 Fallacies and Pitfalls E-88 E.12 Concluding Remarks E-96 E.13 Historical Perspective and References E-97 Exercises E-107
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E Interconnection Networks Revised by Timothy M. Pinkston, University of Southern California, and José Duato, Universitat Politècnica de València, and Simula “The Medium is the Message” because it is the medium that shapes and controls the search and form of human associations and actions. Marshall McLuhan Understanding Media (1964) The marvels—of film, radio, and television—are marvels of one-way communication, which is not communication at all. Milton Mayer On the Remote Possibility of Communication (1967) The interconnection network is the heart of parallel architecture. Chuan-Lin Wu and Tse-Yun Feng Interconnection Networks for Parallel and Distributed Processing (1984) Indeed, as system complexity and integration continues to increase, many designers are finding it more efficient to route packets, not wires. Bill Dally Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (2004)
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E-2 Appendix E Interconnection Networks Previous chapters and appendices cover the components of a single computer but give little consideration to the interconnection of those components and how mul- tiple computer systems are interconnected. These aspects of computer architec- ture have gained significant importance in recent years. In this appendix we see how to connect individual devices together into a community of communicating devices, where the term device is generically used to signify anything from a component or set of components within a computer to a single computer to a sys- tem of computers. Figure E.1 shows the various elements comprising this com- munity: end nodes consisting of devices and their associated hardware and software interfaces, links from end nodes to the interconnection network, and the interconnection network. Interconnection networks are also called networks, communication subnets, or communication subsystems . The interconnection of multiple networks is called internetworking. This relies on communication stan- dards to convert information from one kind of network to another, such as with the Internet. There are several reasons why computer architects should devote attention to interconnection networks. In addition to providing external connectivity, net- works are commonly used to interconnect the components within a single com- puter at many levels, including the processor microarchitecture. Networks have long been used in mainframes, but today such designs can be found in personal computers as well, given the high demand on communication bandwidth needed to enable increased computing power and storage capacity. Switched networks
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