Chapter23A - Chapter 23 Anatomy of the Respiratory System...

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Chapter 23: Anatomy of the Respiratory System
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STRUCTURAL PLAN OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure determined by the system’s functions as an air distributor and gas exchanger, supplying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from cells Alveoli: sacs that serve as gas exchangers; all other parts of respiratory system serve as air distributors The respiratory system also warms, filters, and humidifies air Respiratory organs involved in speech, homeostasis of body pH, and olfaction
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Two structural divisions Upper respiratory tract: organs are located outside the thorax and consist of the nose, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx Lower respiratory tract: organs are located within the thorax and consist of the trachea, the bronchial tree, and the lungs Accessory structures include the oral cavity, ribcage, and diaphragm
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UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT Nose Structure of the nose: external portion consists of a bony and cartilaginous frame covered by skin containing sebaceous glands The two nasal bones meet and are surrounded by the frontal bone to form the root The nose is surrounded by the maxilla
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Internal portion of the nose (nasal cavity) lies over the roof of the mouth, separated by the palatine bones Cleft palate: the palatine bones fail to unite completely and only partially separate the nose and the mouth, thereby producing difficulty swallowing Cribriform plate: separates the roof of the nose from the cranial cavity Septum: separates the nasal cavity into right and left cavities; consists of
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Chapter23A - Chapter 23 Anatomy of the Respiratory System...

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