Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - C hapter 2- Sources of Jazz Pentatonic Scale o...

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Chapter 2- Sources of Jazz Pentatonic Scale o Asymmetrical five note collection built on the 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd ,5 th , and 6 th degrees of the diatonic scale o E.g. C,D,E,G,A, in the key of C o Used by West African musicians Spirituals and Slave Songs o Employed European harmony and meter o And retained African elements of pentatonic melodies o Introduced to the world by the Fisk Jubilee Singers Stephen Foster o Made the most lasting contributions to the minstrelsy repertoire Defied Notation o The fluid bending of pitches to achieve a multitude of expressive vocal effects 1. Marches Concert Band o Touring bands at the turn of the century o Military marches, outdoor concerts o Some were local other were nationally famous John Philip Sousa o Began career as bandmaster of the U.S. Marine Band o Organized his own professional band 49 virtuoso musicians
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o Wrote 136 marches- songs for parades The Washington Post, Semper Fidelis , The Liberty Bell, Stars and Stripes Forever Principal Features of the March o Support the right left pattern of those marching in parades, written in a two beat meter o AABBCCDD- Called March form Additive structure- each letter is an additional strain of 16 bars o Composers combined melodies to create polyphony o Obligatos- faster embellishing melodies by the high woodwinds 2. Ragtime Ragtime-could be viewed as a rhythmically electrified march transferred to the medium of solo Piano o Not really Jazz but has similar elements A sort of precursor to Jazz
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Chapter 2 - C hapter 2- Sources of Jazz Pentatonic Scale o...

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