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Unformatted text preview: Green Energy and Technology Jahangir Hossain
Apel Mahmud Editors Renewable
Challenges and Solutions Green Energy and Technology For further volumes:
Jahangir Hossain Apel Mahmud
• Editors Renewable Energy
Challenges and Solutions 123 Editors
Griffith School of Engineering
Gold Coast, QLD
Australia Apel Mahmud
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Swinburne University of Technology
Australia ISSN 1865-3529
ISSN 1865-3537 (electronic)
ISBN 978-981-4585-27-9 (eBook)
Springer Singapore Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014931209
Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014
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Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Editorial Advisory Board A/Prof. Hemanshu Roy Pota, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Dr. Nadarajah Mithulananthan, The University of Queensland, Australia
Dr. Nirmal Nair, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Dr. S. M. Muyeen, The Petroleum Institute, UAE
Dr. Mohd. Hasan Ali, Asst. Prof., The University of Memphis, USA Reviewers
Nigel Hargreaves, Brunel University, UK
Naruttam Kumar Roy, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Loughborough University, UK
Tareq Aziz, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh
Tahsin Fahima Orchi, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Raymundo Enrique Torres Olguin, Sintef Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway
Md. Abdul Barik, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Ramesh Rayudu, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Ramesh Bansal, The University of Pretoria, South Africa
Md. Shihanur Rahman, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Ahmed Fathi Abdou, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Henry Louie, Seattle University, USA
A. B. M. Nasiruzzaman, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Jayashri Ravishankar, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Md. Masud Rana, The University of Sydney, Australia
Elyas Rakhshani, Campus Palmas Altas, Spain
Sajeeb Saha, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Rajeev Chauhan, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India
Mithulan Nadarajah, The University of Queensland, Australia
Md. Rakibuzzaman Shah, The University of Queensland, Australia
Geev Mokryani, Imperial College London, UK
Abdun Naser Mahmood, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Bharat Singh Rajpurohit, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India
Md. Rabiul Islam, University of Technology Sydney, Australia vi Editorial Advisory Board B. Azzopardi, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania
Ayaz Chowdhury, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Farhad Shahania, Curtin University, Australia
G. A. Taylor, Brunel University, UK
F. M. Rabiul Islam, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Jin Yang, Aston University, UK
Hemanshu Roy Pota, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Alireza Soroudi, University of Tehran, Iran
Adnan Anwar, The University of New South Wales, Australia
Asheesh K. Singh, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, India Preface Recent concerns regarding the environmental protection and sustainable development have resulted in there being a critical need for cleaner energy technologies.
Some potential solutions have evolved including energy conservation through
improved energy efficiency, reductions in the use of fossil fuels, and increases in
the supply of environmental-friendly energy sources which has led to the use of
intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs). These RESs are connected close to
loads in the distribution network to reduce transmission losses and delay in the
upgrade of transmission systems. The inclusion of renewable sources gives rise to
a new set of problems which are due to the intermittency of the sources and the
dynamics of interfacing equipments. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the
potential challenges of renewable energy integration and to find out the effective
and innovative solutions. This book includes different aspects of renewable energy
integration—from the current trends of renewable energy integration to the current
development of smart grids.
Chapter 1 of this book discusses the importance of green energy which is
structured into two parts: (i) the available knowledge with regard to the general
decision-making processes is described, followed by a critical perspective about
today’s decision making and (ii) a review of three enhanced approaches using Real
Options Theory, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, and Multi-Criteria Cost Benefit
Analysis, which are applied to RES decision making from the personal or
investment point of view as well to the policy and the latter pan-European point of
Various aspects, such as classification and specifications of the grid codes, the
anomalies that exist between the grid codes developed and standards used in
conventional power plants are discussed in Chap. 2 and a fault-ride-through
criteria by satisfying these grid codes are developed in Chap. 3 where the criteria is
tested on New Zealand power systems.
Chapter 4 presents a voltage imbalance sensitivity analysis and stochastic
evaluation based on Monte Carlo method carried out based on the ratings and
locations of single-phase grid-connected rooftop PVs in a residential low voltage
distribution network. On the other hand Chap. 5 includes comparative studies on
the performance evaluation of grid-connected photovoltaic systems with different
maximum power point tracking techniques. vii viii Preface One of the most important tasks in renewable energy integration is to
determine optimal size and location of renewable energy sources which is
discussed in Chap. 6 in which wind energy is considered as a renewable energy
sources (RESs). After determining the optimal size and location, it is essential to
investigate the characteristics of RESs and the steady state characteristics of
wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) is presented in Chap. 7 from where it
can be seen that WECSs affect the performance of power systems. A detailed
study in which the effects of variable-speed wind generators to frequency
regulation and oscillation damping is discussed elaborately in Chap. 8. The
behaviors of power systems change with the penetration of RESs and Chap. 9
discusses some power management approaches for low and medium voltage
The negative impacts of RESs need to be minimized for stable and reliable
system operation. Keeping this in mind, a new control methodology is proposed in
Chaps. 10 and 11 which incorporates a review study on a new load, plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles in power distribution networks. The coordination and aggregation
of RESs during emergency conditions are discussed in Chaps. 12 and 13,
respectively. Since the cost is an important issue for power system operation, this
aspect of study for a residential application is presented in Chap. 14.
The latest trend in the area of renewable energy integration is the operation of
power system in a smarter way. The operation of interconnected smart grids with
self-healing capability is addressed in Chap. 15 and an agent-based scheme for
smart-grid protection and security is presented in Chap. 16. In the last two chapters
(Chaps. 15 and 17), the vulnerability analysis of complex smart grids is discussed
from the cyber attacks and renewable energy integration points of view. Contents 1 Green Energy and Technology: Choosing Among Alternatives . . .
Brian Azzopardi 1 2 Grid Codes: Goals and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pradeep Kumar and Asheesh K. Singh 17 3 Fault Ride-Through Criteria Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair and Waqar A. Qureshi 41 4 High Penetration of Rooftop Photovoltaic Cells in Low
Voltage Distribution Networks: Voltage Imbalance
and Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farhad Shahnia and Arindam Ghosh 5 6 7 8 9 69 Performance Evaluation of Grid-Connected Solar
Photovoltaic (SPV) System with Different MPPT Controllers . . . .
R. Singh and B. S. Rajpurohit 97 Optimal Siting and Sizing of Wind Turbines Based
on Genetic Algorithm and Optimal Power Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Geev Mokryani and Pierluigi Siano 125 Power Flow Analysis and Reactive Power Compensation
of Grid Connected Wind Energy Conversion Systems . . . . . . . . .
J. Ravishankar 145 Contribution of Variable-Speed Wind Generators to Frequency
Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the United States
Eastern Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yong Liu, J. R. Gracia, T. J. King and Yilu Liu
Power Management of Low and Medium Voltage Networks
with High Density of Renewable Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. A. Barik, H. R. Pota and J. Ravishankar 169 189 ix x 10 Contents Integration of Green Energy into Power Distribution Systems:
Study of Impacts and Development of Control Methodology . . . .
N. K. Roy and H. R. Pota 209 11 Integrating Smart PHEVs in Future Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F. R. Islam and H. R. Pota 12 Coordinating Distributed Energy Resources During
Microgrid Emergency Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Gouveia, D. Rua, C. L. Moreira and J. A. Peças Lopes 259 A Novel Aggregation Technique Using Mechanical
Torque Compensating Factor for DFIG Wind Farms . . . . . . . . .
M. A. Chowdhury 305 13 14 15 DC Grid Interconnection for Conversion Losses
and Cost Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R. K. Chauhan, B. S. Rajpurohit, S. N. Singh
and F. M. Gonzalez-Longatt
Interconnected Autonomous Microgrids in Smart Grids
with Self-Healing Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farhad Shahnia, Ruwan P. S. Chandrasena, Sumedha Rajakaruna
and Arindam Ghosh 239 327 347 16 Agent-Based Smart Grid Protection and Security . . . . . . . . . . . .
Md Shihanur Rahman and H. R. Pota 17 Vulnerabilities of Smart Grid State Estimation Against
False Data Injection Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adnan Anwar and Abdun Naser Mahmood 411 Impediments and Model for Network Centrality Analysis
of a Renewable Integrated Electricity Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. B. M. Nasiruzzaman, Most. Nahida Akter and H. R. Pota 429 18 383 Chapter 1 Green Energy and Technology: Choosing
Brian Azzopardi Abstract The primary renewable energy system (RES) investment decisionmaking criteria are economics. These criteria are focused on the RES and its
support ancillary infrastructure technical superiorities, such as efficiency and cost,
which is reasonable in the context of generous financial support schemes. However, when financial supports are phased out the energy market becomes technologically diversified environmental, political and social concerns, which include
both quantitative as well as qualitative criteria, become significant. The technical
superiorities may fail to describe RES or the relevant technology properly. This
chapter is structured in two parts. Firstly, the available knowledge with regards to
the general decision making processes is described, followed by a critical perspective about today’s decision making. The second part presents a review of three
enhanced approaches using Real Options Theory, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
and Multi-Criteria Cost Benefit Analysis which are applied to RES decision
making both from the personal or investment point of view as well to the policy
and the latter pan-European point of view. Finally, the society challenges are
discussed within this context. Keywords Decision making Renewable energy system (RES)
(RO) theory Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) Real options B. Azzopardi (&)
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics, Department of Electrical Energy Systems and
Renewable Energy Centre, Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), Studentu˛ g. 48,
LT-51367 Kaunas, Lithuania
e-mail: [email protected] J. Hossain and A. Mahmud (eds.), Renewable Energy Integration,
Green Energy and Technology, DOI: 10.1007/978-981-4585-27-9_1,
Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014 1 2 B. Azzopardi 1.1 Introduction
Historically, the choice of energy has been economics and local conditions. Our
society has been driven to choose inexpensive energy. However nowadays, the
technical superiorities of energy systems may fail to describe for instance
renewable energy systems (RESs) or its technology properly.
In this chapter, the RESs decision making process is examined with a number of
analytical lenses that may not give priority to their technological superiorities.
Although the real life decision-making process is far from the aspired process in
this chapter, this chapter will provide the understanding of the complex multidisciplinary decision making approach that today’s experts and policy makers are
faced to address the challenges that society will dictate in the future.
The large scale definition in this chapter is not limited to large system size
magnitudes such as in Mega Watt equivalent but also considers the high
deployment rates of micro-generation which when collected together may provide
a large scale renewable power generation potential. 1.2 The Decision-Process Complexity
The decision process starts when there is more than one alternative to a solution.
As will be described later on in the second part of the chapter, with the use of Real
Options (RO) Theory decision-process kicks-off even between two simple alternatives do nothing or do something. There is no fixed framework or a single
sequential approach how to achieve to the best decision.
Figure 1.1 tries to depict the complexity of choosing among alternatives.The
first phase is the Problem Definition which is the crucial stage in decision-making.
It is usually difficult or impossible to fully complete one component in the process
without reflecting on the other components within a decision making process. This
first phase groups the components into more malleable and therefore more realistic
manner. This phase involve data processing that filters the relevant data and the
feasible alternatives by their attributes leading to objective mapping. The criteria
description helps the evaluation which is subjectively mapped to quantitative of
qualitative attributes. While several components of the decision making process
may be considered in parallel, there is no dictated or standardised procedure of
what component comes before the other. Hence, Fig. 1.1 to some difficulty tries to
draw the interrelationships between all components. It also includes a very
important component in today’s world, the perspective of the decision maker.
Information and data can be gathered to understand more holistically the perspective of the decision maker being at political level, business level or individual
customer level. Perspective change depending on the decision maker position and
during the next phase due importance may be provided. This will lead to the most 1 Green Energy and Technology: Choosing Among Alternatives 3 Fig. 1.1 The complexity of choosing among alternatives missing aspect in decision making which is usually referred to ‘feedback’ and will
help finding the trade-off between different decision makers’ perspectives.
The objective of a decision making process is the focus of the problem definition. The objective may have a multi-dimension perspective and several impacts.
This is illustrated by the following example for decision making:
• To integrate nationwide renewable energy systems, an example using multicriteria decision making technique is further illustrated in second part of this
• To inform stakeholders including policy, business and end-user on diversified
renewable energy technology for example in case of photovoltaic (PV) technologies. An example is also illustrated in second part of the chapter. 4 B. Azzopardi • To evaluate production high throughput practices in producing renewable
energy systems or components.
The second phase is the modelling and decision analysis. Figure 1.1 shows a
wide range of techniques that may be used, while the importance of results can
differ for decision makers. The decision analytics methods may be undertaken
combined such as with simulation models which are fed to multi-attribute utility
analysis. There is an extensive classic works on decision making techniques [1, 2]
which goes beyond the scope for this chapter, including aspects related to the
behavioural viewpoint in Kahneman et al.  which aspect has already been
highlighted above. In the next subsections, a brief description is given to all the
named techniques. 1.2.1 Voting
In voting methods, the stakeholders that have the right to vote can voice up and
choose democratically an alternative over another. However this allows for the
possibility of political interference and may not result in complete unbiased
solution to be the right choice. Voting can take many forms such as using simple
voting system or preferential voting system. Voting technique may also inform
decision makers to form the ‘‘big picture’’ that is the holistic approach and fed
back to the decision support system. 1.2.2 Cost-Benefit
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) computes the ‘‘net present value’’ (NPV) which is
usually monetary value based on one time snap-shot all the benefits and costs of a
project, decision or policy. CBA has been widely used in RES projects to justify
investment or compare projects and sometimes even coupled by other economic
theories such as the RO Theory which will be further described in the second part
of this chapter.
Related formal techniques include cost-effectiveness analysis, cost–utility
analysis, economic impact analysis, fiscal impact analysis, and social return on
investment (SROI) analysis. When Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is incorporated
within CBA, the technique finds out the total cost of ownership. It is a structured
methodology which deals with all the elements of this total cost of ownership.
Hence an expenditure profile of a system ov...
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