40928507-Exam-2-Review

40928507-Exam-2-Review - CMN 152 EXAM 2 REVIEW LIST...

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CMN 152 EXAM 2 REVIEW LIST Psychological consistency Balance theory (Heider) o People are driven to maintain balance among the relations of elements o There is a drive to be consistent o Imbalance tends not to be maintained over time o Imbalance can be resolved by changing one’s attitude toward one of the elements or adding/altering elements Heider’s triads P→ (mental model) you or a reference person O→ another person (could also be a second object) X→ entity or thing
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o Hierarchy of attitudes : Attitudes are not independent of one another (may be organized in some kind of structures in our minds) 3 possible directions of influence o upwards, downwards, and sideways -upwards: when more concrete attitude changes/influences more superordinate attitudes. (EXAMPLE: E affecting B) -downwards: when influence flows from a more abstract attitude to more concrete attitude object -sideways: influence moves within same levels of abstraction (not possible for B to affect C/ C affects D) 2 attitude change agents External message: you can direct an external message (created by the social influence agent) directly at an attitude Attitudes impact each other: the hierarchy impacting change/internal variation. People will not tolerate imbalance between their attitudes. Decay The target was persuaded , however over time the target attitude reverts back to precommunication attitude **If attitude moves closer to original attitude opposite direction desired we see decay because the attitude is reverting **Different from the boomerang effect **To have decay you must have persuasion Using consistency to influence Cognitive dissonance o Concerned with the relations among cognitive elements o Element : any belief, opinion, attitude, or piece of knowledge
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o Elements may be related in 3 different ways Irrelevant: not linked Consonant: linked and consistent EXAMPLE: I lead a healthy lifestyle and I eat organic Dissonant: linked and inconsistent EXAMPLE: I lead a healthy lifestyle and eat DairyQueen everday o 2 elements are dissonant if the opposite of one element follows from the other o Importance of the issue impacts the degree of dissonance experienced o Proportion of consonant elements to dissonant elements influences the amount of dissonance experienced Dissonance reduction o Can reduce dissonance by adding, changing, or deleting elements o Can reduce dissonance by changing the importance of the issue Induced compliance and attitude change o When people can attribute their behavior to an extrinsic motivation, little to no dissonance will occur o When people can not attribute their behavior to something other than their beliefs, dissonance reduction will be observed o So induce behavior with compliance gaining tactic to alter behavior and subsequently attitude Two groups of people: all of the people complete advocated behavior, but based on what motivation? The Dependant Variable would be their attitude toward behavior
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40928507-Exam-2-Review - CMN 152 EXAM 2 REVIEW LIST...

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