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Outline - Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes The...

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Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes The Universal Features of cells on earth (pages 1-11; figures 1-1 to 1-14) 1. All cells have DNA as the genetic material 2. All cells replicate their DNA by templated polymerization 3. All cells transcribe a portion of their genetic material into RNA 4. All cells use proteins as catalysts 5. All cells translate into proteins in the same way 6. Fragment of genetic information corresponding to one protein is one gene 7. Requirement of energy by living cells 8. All cells use the same building blocks 9. All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane 10. A living cell can exist with fewer than 500 genes – the minimal genome concept. The diversity of genomes and the tree of life (pages 11-22; figures 1-15 to 1-25) 11. Cells can use various free energy sources - organotrophic; phototrophic; lithotrophic 12. Some cells can fix nitrogen and carbon dioxide 13. Procaryotes exhibit the greatest biochemical diversity 14. Tree of life – three domains – bacteria, archaea, and eucaryotes 15. New genes are generated from preexisting genes 16. Gene duplications give rise to gene families - homologs, paralogs, and orthologs 17. Genes can be transferred between organisms Genetic information in eucaryotes (pages 26-31; figures 1-30 to 1-37) 18. Eucaryotic cells may have originated as predators 19. Modern eucaryotic cells evolved from a symbiosis 20. Eucaryotes have hybrid genomes
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21. Eucaryotic genomes are big 1. The Universal Features of cells on Earth: Heredity is the phenomenon where characteristics are passed from parent to offspring. Living organisms consume free energy to create and maintain organization via chemical systems specified by hereditary information. Humans are made of 100,000,000,000,000 cells (10 13 ). Cells are vehicles for hereditary information. a. All cells store their hereditary information in the same linear chemical code (DNA): DNA is made of monomers of sugar phosphates and bases. b. All cells replicate their DNA by templated polymerization: Nucleotides consist of a deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and a base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine). Phosphodiester bonds between the sugar and the adjacent nucleotide’s phosphate group link nucleotides. Adenine binds to Thymine and Cytosine binds to Guanine via weak Hydrogen bonds. Templated polymerization means DNA replication is preformed using each parent strand of DNA as a template to make two identical daughter strands that are also identical to the parent DNA. c. All cells transcribe a portion of their genetic material into RNA: Segments of DNA can be used as templates to make RNA in transcription and RNA can be used as a template for protein production in translation. RNA is very similar to DNA except it is made of ribose sugars and instead of Thymine, Uracil pairs with Adenine. DNA can be used over
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