8 ICS132-multicast

8 ICS132-multicast - Multicast Communications Outline 1 2 3...

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Multicast Communications
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Outline 1. Advantages of multicast 2. Multicast addressing 3. Multicast Routing Protocols 4. Multicast in the Internet 5. IGMP
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1. Multicasting Unicast A flow from one source to one destination IP packets contain destination IP address Broadcast A flow from one source to all destinations IP packets contain broadcast address 255.255 Multicast A flow from one source to a Group of destinations IP packets contain a class D address for destination
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Multicast vs. Multiple Unicast 1 2 3 1 2 3 Group Address includes 1 , 2 and 3 Packet duplicated Packet duplicated Multiple Unicast: Multicast:
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Advantages of Multicasting Advantages: Lower overhead at the source – Source sends only one packet Bandwidth is conserved on shared links – Only one copy of each packet is sent on each link Requirements: Group address management Packet duplication at routing nodes
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Applications of Multicast Push data Video streams, audio streams Resource discovery Can send multicast queries (if destination is not known) Multimedia collaboration Video conferencing
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2. Multicast Addressing
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IP Address Classes (From IPv4 Lecture Notes) 0 Net 32 bits Host 10 Net Host 110 Net Host 1110 Multicast address 11110 Reserved A B C D E Class
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IP Address Classes (From IPv4 Lecture Notes) Class A: For very large organizations 16 million hosts allowed Class B: For large organizations 65 thousand hosts allowed Class C For small organizations 255 hosts allowed Class D Multicast addresses No network/host hierarchy
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IP Address Classes (From IPv4 Lecture Notes) Class E reserved Loopback 127.xx.yy.zz (127.anything) is reserved for loopback testing packets sent to this address are not put out onto the wire; they are processed locally and treated as incoming packets. Broadcast all 1s
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Frame Check Seq. (4 bytes) MAC Layer Ethernet Frame Format (From MAC Layer Lecture Notes) Destination (6 bytes) Length (2 bytes) Data (46-1500 bytes) Pad Source (6 bytes) Multicast bit
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MAC Layer Ethernet Frame Format (From MAC Layer Lecture Notes) Destination and Source Addresses: 6 bytes each Two types of destination addresses Physical address: Unique for each user Multicast address: Group of users First bit of address determines which type of address is being used 0 = physical address 1 = multicast address
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Multicast Addressing Class D address Multicast addresses are in the range 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255 The set of hosts listening to a particular multicast address is called a host group A sender of packets to a multicast group is known as a multicast source Multicast packets, at least for now, are sent only as UDP packets 1 1 1 0 28 bits Multicast group
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Mapping to Ethernet Addresses Ethernet has a 48-bit address field It has its own multicast address range 01.00.5e.00.00.00 through 01.00.5e.7f.ff.ff Lower order 23 bits can be used for multicast addresses IP multicast address has 28 bits for specifying
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8 ICS132-multicast - Multicast Communications Outline 1 2 3...

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