psych - Psychological explanations for gender differences...

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Psychological explanations for gender differences Freud saw gender as the most important part of personality development, stemming from anatomical differences. So males and females would have different personalities, and sex would determine temperament But NOT differences at birth, so different from biological arguments—infancy onwards (yes, things we were born with, but it was the nature of our different experiences due to those things, not the biological differences themselves) Freud’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Before birth, all desires are met At birth, need food—oral stage (pleasure through food) Then, giving food back—anal stage (pleasure through giving it back) Phallic stage—focus on the genitals Genital stage—interest in the opposite sex Harder for boys First adult really identify with is mother, and girls can keep doing that— boys have to detach from and disidentify with mother and identify with father, who is harder to because more authoritarian and less affectionate= Oedipal Crisis Freud says to successfully negotiate, at end should identify as a man and want to have sex with a woman—so he ties gender identity and sexual orientation in together Not as hard for girls— identify with moms, but can’t have sexual desire for because don’t have the right equipment—need a man so she can have a baby and be gratified as a female. Leads to penis envy Three issues to note: Gender and sexuality are dislocated from biology.
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