PITCO (What is it? What are its elements?)
Acronym for understanding historical events. Propositions, institutions, time (history, sequence),
contrariness, openness (more hypothesis than “truths”)
Power and PITCO:
Propositions: Who has power
Institutions: Regime types
Time: Type and amounts of power change over time
Contrariness: Determining calculus of power, hidden weapons of the weak
Openness: Several ways of looking at power
List four types of variables. Provide examples of each.
Variables are changeable characteristics that can vary.
Nominal (related to number, how many democrats or republicans)
Ordinal (related to order, rating something as good or bad on a 1-5 scale)
Interval (range of numbers to place you into a category, such as income levels)
Know: dependent, independent, intervening variables.
Dependent: Dependent on the independent variable. Voter turnout is dependent on age, income
Independent: Changes on its own, variable that is not dependent on the other, age
Intervening: Can be in between dependent and independent variables, prove that the correlation
does not prove the causation. Income levels and voter turnout, intervening variable can be that
income levels lead to education level changes.
What is theory?
How are models related, how they influence each other; thinking about politics, making
generalizations, and general principles not necessarily true, can be value-centered or normative
theories, as in how something “ought to be.”
What is the difference between induction and deduction?
Induction: Based on past, form of answering questions through bottom up perspective. Induction
would require you to first judge that Socrates is a man, and men are mortal, therefore Socrates is
mortal. You can be sure that the conclusion is true based on the steps you took to get there.
Deduction: Based on future, form of answering questions through top down perspective. Does
not necessarily lead to true conclusions. If it walks like a duck and talks like a duck it MAY be a
duck, but not necessarily.
Which collective identities are almost always politicized?
Refers to individuals' sense of belonging (the identity) to a group (the collective). From the
perspective of the individual, the collective identity forms a part of his or her personal identity.