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Comp Pol Midterm Review - COMPARATIVE POLITICS PITCO(What...

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COMPARATIVE POLITICS PITCO (What is it? What are its elements?) Acronym for understanding historical events. Propositions, institutions, time (history, sequence), contrariness, openness (more hypothesis than “truths”) Power and PITCO: Propositions: Who has power Institutions: Regime types Time: Type and amounts of power change over time Contrariness: Determining calculus of power, hidden weapons of the weak Openness: Several ways of looking at power List four types of variables. Provide examples of each. Variables are changeable characteristics that can vary. Nominal (related to number, how many democrats or republicans) Ordinal (related to order, rating something as good or bad on a 1-5 scale) Interval (range of numbers to place you into a category, such as income levels) Ratio: Percentage Know: dependent, independent, intervening variables. Dependent: Dependent on the independent variable. Voter turnout is dependent on age, income level. Independent: Changes on its own, variable that is not dependent on the other, age Intervening: Can be in between dependent and independent variables, prove that the correlation does not prove the causation. Income levels and voter turnout, intervening variable can be that income levels lead to education level changes. What is theory? How are models related, how they influence each other; thinking about politics, making generalizations, and general principles not necessarily true, can be value-centered or normative theories, as in how something “ought to be.” What is the difference between induction and deduction? Induction: Based on past, form of answering questions through bottom up perspective. Induction would require you to first judge that Socrates is a man, and men are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal. You can be sure that the conclusion is true based on the steps you took to get there. Deduction: Based on future, form of answering questions through top down perspective. Does not necessarily lead to true conclusions. If it walks like a duck and talks like a duck it MAY be a duck, but not necessarily. Which collective identities are almost always politicized? Refers to individuals' sense of belonging (the identity) to a group (the collective). From the perspective of the individual, the collective identity forms a part of his or her personal identity.
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Sometimes, the sense of belonging to a particular group will be so strong that it will trump other aspects of the person's personal identity (for example, the person may be willing to assume great risks for the group, even as great as loss of life). ethnicity, gender, age, languages, and race Logical fallacies (know at least 3). Compositions: Sweeping generalizations. “Everyone is involved in protests” Tautology: Circular reasoning. "Only an untrustworthy person would run for office. The fact that politicians are untrustworthy is proof of this." A Fortiori: Just because there is a connection on a smaller scale the assumption that there is a connection on the larger scale. For ex. If a particular Councilman is corrupt, to assume that every politician is corrupt even on the national scale.
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