Infant and Child Development
Review Questions for Midterm 1
Chapter 1: Introduction to Child Development
Explain the four enduring themes in child development and give an example for
Nature & Nurture: Nature is biological endowment. Genes, inborn genetic characteristics, change
in growth due to maturation. Nurture is the environment, both physical and social. Includes how
a child is raised (parenting style) and the ability to learn from environment. Schizophrenia is an
example of nature and nurture working together.
Children Shaping Their Environment: Mother-infant bond, baby smiles and coos at their mother,
which elicits mother to interact back with infant. Children also teach themselves about their
environment through play. They bang things together, feel things, etc. Children also practice
speech when alone because they are internally motivated to speak.
Continuity/Discontinuity: Continuous is like the growth of a pine tree, steady and full of small
changes. Discontinuous is like a butterfly, with a few dramatic changes. Piaget had a 4 stage
theory of discontinuous cognitive development. But when children exhibit aspects of one stage in
one circumstance and another in another, it leads people to question the discontinuous model.
Showed in the conservation of liquids dilemma.
Sociocultural Context: Physical, social, cultural, economic, historical circumstances of child
development. Ex: Children sleeping in parents bed from country to country. Socioeconomic
status (SES) within a culture can also be important, as in health problems and lower education
status of lower income families.
What are the procedures involved in the scientific method?
Choose a question, formulate a hypothesis, experimental design, and draw a conclusion from
Describe three contexts for gathering data.
What are the advantages and
disadvantages of each?
Scientific Method Steps: Allows causal inferences because design rules out direction-of-
causation and third-variable problems, naturalistic experiments can demonstrate cause-effect
connections in natural settings. However, need for experimental control often leads to artificial
experimental situations, cannot be used to study many differences and variables of interest, such
as age, sex, and temperament