Infant Midterm - 830:331 Infant and Child Development...

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830:331 Infant and Child Development Review Questions for Midterm 1 - 2/21/2011 Chapter 1: Introduction to Child Development 1. Explain the four enduring themes in child development and give an example for each. Nature & Nurture: Nature is biological endowment. Genes, inborn genetic characteristics, change in growth due to maturation. Nurture is the environment, both physical and social. Includes how a child is raised (parenting style) and the ability to learn from environment. Schizophrenia is an example of nature and nurture working together. Children Shaping Their Environment: Mother-infant bond, baby smiles and coos at their mother, which elicits mother to interact back with infant. Children also teach themselves about their environment through play. They bang things together, feel things, etc. Children also practice speech when alone because they are internally motivated to speak. Continuity/Discontinuity: Continuous is like the growth of a pine tree, steady and full of small changes. Discontinuous is like a butterfly, with a few dramatic changes. Piaget had a 4 stage theory of discontinuous cognitive development. But when children exhibit aspects of one stage in one circumstance and another in another, it leads people to question the discontinuous model. Showed in the conservation of liquids dilemma. Sociocultural Context: Physical, social, cultural, economic, historical circumstances of child development. Ex: Children sleeping in parents bed from country to country. Socioeconomic status (SES) within a culture can also be important, as in health problems and lower education status of lower income families. 2. What are the procedures involved in the scientific method? Choose a question, formulate a hypothesis, experimental design, and draw a conclusion from your findings. 3. Describe three contexts for gathering data. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Scientific Method Steps: Allows causal inferences because design rules out direction-of- causation and third-variable problems, naturalistic experiments can demonstrate cause-effect connections in natural settings. However, need for experimental control often leads to artificial experimental situations, cannot be used to study many differences and variables of interest, such as age, sex, and temperament
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Interviews: Asking parents about child behaviors can be useful but also can be inaccurate. Structured interviews are a set of questions directed toward the child. Clinical interviews can depart from the structure of questions. Naturalistic/Structured Observations: Natural environment vs. in a lab. In natural environment no one variable can easily be tested, but children are familiar with the environment and act normally. In a lab it is an unfamiliar location to the child, but one variable is being measured and can be observed, and all children face the same situation. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2011 for the course POLITICAL 101 taught by Professor Kubik during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Infant Midterm - 830:331 Infant and Child Development...

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