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First Midterm notes

First Midterm notes - Sept 2 Humanities ~The residue of...

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Sept 2 Humanities: ~The residue of human endeavor -what humans have done that has been left behind for us to appreciate History of the World -Creation & Adam and Eve -Noah and the Flood -Abraham -Greece -Roman Empire -Christian era -Dark Ages -Middle Age -RENAISSANCE -Baroque -Enlightenment -Modern *STILL in the Christian era 1453-1968 timeline for this course 1) Gutenberg -printing press and movable type -million books printed 2) Fall of Byzantine Empire -Islam vs. Eastern Orthodox -Islam takes over; convert or die -survivors go west; monks, scholars take books into Western Europe -also took great Greek classics to the west -revival of interest in the Greek civilization; Plato becomes huge Bible- single most important document in the history of the world Anno Domini Sequence of eras Importance of 1453 Sept 9 Roman Empire 325 AD Constantine is the current emperor -pressing problem: too many Christians -previously persecuted because Rome was trying to kill the new religion -Emperor’s mother has become a Christian -pressures Constantine -Constantine declares Christianity as THE religion of the Roman Empire -says a prayer and has a dream that the cross will carry him/his army to victory -sees the clouds have formed the chi-ro symbol (x with a p through the middle) -first 2 letters of the name christos= Christ
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-also sees in hoc signo vinces = in this sign is victory *never baptized till his death bed, but declares himself a Christian Christian Era ~Rome falls in 476 AD; end of Pax Romana (“Roman Peace”) *moral decay, entertainment became a priority instead of military -Barbarians conquer Rome -only real leadership left is The Church -by 900 AD all of Europe is Christian -everyone is going to church -local church bell reigns supreme in towns Dark Ages -decline in literacy, availability of books, and education Middle Ages -Medieval (“Middle Times”) -feudalism Renaissance ~rebirth (French) -rebirth of the Greek aesthetic – Greek ideals 1066 Guillaume le conquerant, crossed English Channel and conquered England -killed the aristocracy of the Anglo-Saxons -peasants are left behind, leadership is now French **birth of English!!! Mix of the French/Anglo-Saxon languages 1482 Ficino publishes Plato once again -Neoplatonism = Good, True, Beautiful *THE IDEAL -root of the Trinity -artists are catholic but love the idea of the neoplatonics; mixture seen in their art *increase in literacy by the fall of Byzantium 1492 Columbus and other explorers discover the hidden world and maps are created -Columbus sets out for gold, spices; real destination was Jerusalem -no such person as Columbus: Christ-bearer/sets sword up in symbol of cross on beach -Columbus means dove; symbol of the Holy Spirit -came over in the Santa Maria = Saint Mary -Muslims controlled half of Spain at this time (Muslims remained powerful till Ferdinand and Isabelle); Islam is big obstacle to reaching Jerusalem again; Byzantium now ruled by the Muslims -“New World” Erasmus; spoke Latin for church, Greek for the scriptures -knew many of the most important/influential people of his day
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First Midterm notes - Sept 2 Humanities ~The residue of...

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