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Unformatted text preview: Principles of Biology II This site has some password protected materials, but “ Life 9 th Edition Companion Website” is accessible to all. You can review the chapter summaries and do many of the activities – which can be good for review. Remember – only read the sections I’ve given in the outline – those will be updated each week Ecology and the Distribution of Life • What Is Ecology? What Is Ecology? Environment encompasses both abiotic , and biotic factors. How do organisms interact with the environment? These interactions influence the structure of communities : And ecosystems : And the biosphere : Ecological Hierarchy Organism Population Community Ecological Hierarchy Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Who Cares? The many reasons to care about ecology (biology): – The fascinating interactions among species enrich our lives and make us curious. – Ecological science is needed to solve many problems. Humans depend on functioning ecosystems for many services. – Ecology gives us an insight into diseases and their possible treatments Who Cares? An understanding of ecology allows us to – manage ecosystems to maintain those services, – to grow food and manage pests, – to deal with natural disasters and other problems without causing harm to those ecosystems. Focus on the pathways of Energy and Nutrients What Are Ecological Communities? Organisms in a community can be divided into trophic levels based on their source of energy. Autotrophs get their energy how? How do heterotrophs get their energy? Energy Flow: Heterotrophs (Consumers) Herbivores, Omnivores and Carnivores What Are Ecological Communities? What’s a food chain? How is a food web different? Food Chains Animal Wastes/ Remains of Plant Materials Decomposers/ Detritovores Nutrients 55.1 What Are Ecological Communities? Herbivores eat Organisms that eat herbivores are Organisms that eat those are Detritivores or decomposers eat What Processes Influence Community Structure? Categories of species interactions: • Predation or parasitism : What Processes Influence Community Structure? Categories of species interactions: • Predation or parasitism : one participant is harmed, the other benefits. • Competition : • Mutualism : What Processes Influence Community Structure? • Commensalism : • Amensalism : These interactions may increase or decrease the range of conditions over which a species can exist. Energy Flow • First Law of Thermodynamics – Energy can not be created or destroyed, only transformed • Second Law of Thermodynamics – Energy conversions are not 100% efficient Energy Flow: Autotrophs (Producers) • In any transfer process, some useful energy which can do work is lost •...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 2108 taught by Professor Brewer during the Spring '11 term at Georgia State.

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Biology - Principles of Biology II This site has some...

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