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Chemistry - Liquids Solids and Intermolecular Forces...

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Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
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Comparisons of the States of Matter the solid and liquid states have a much higher density than the gas state therefore the molar volume of the solid and liquid states is much smaller than the gas state the solid and liquid states have similar densities generally the solid state is a little denser notable exception: ice is less dense than liquid water the molecules in the solid and liquid state are in close contact with each other, while the molecules in a gas are far apart
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Properties of the 3 Phases of Matter Fixed = keeps shape when placed in a container Indefinite = takes the shape of the container State Shape Volume Compressible Flow Strength of Intermolecular Attractions Solid Fixed Fixed No No very strong Liquid Indef. Fixed No Yes moderate Gas Indef. Indef. Yes Yes very weak
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Solids some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern – we call these crystalline solids salt and diamonds other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range – we call these amorphous solids plastic and glass
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Explaining the Properties of Solids the particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in position though they may vibrate the close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible the inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container; and prevents the particles from flowing
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Explaining the Properties of Liquids they have higher densities than gases because the molecules are in close contact they have an indefinite shape because the limited freedom of the molecules allows them to move around enough to get to the container walls but they have a definite volume because the limit on their freedom keeps them from escaping the rest of the molecules
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Why are molecules attracted to each other? intermolecular attractions are due to attractive forces between opposite charges + ion to - ion + end of polar molecule to - end of polar molecule H-bonding especially strong even nonpolar molecules will have temporary charges larger the charge = stronger attraction longer the distance = weaker attraction however, these attractive forces are small relative to the bonding forces between atoms generally smaller charges generally over much larger distances
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Trends in the Strength of Intermolecular Attraction? the stronger the attractions between the atoms or molecules, the more energy it will take to separate them boiling a liquid requires we add enough energy to overcome the attractions between the molecules or atoms the higher the normal boiling point of the liquid, the stronger the intermolecular attractive forces
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Attractive Forces + - + - + - + - + + + + _ _ _ _ + + + + + + + - - - - - - - + + + + + - - - - -
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Dispersion Forces fluctuations in the electron distribution in atoms and molecules result in a temporary dipole
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