pk 2 chem 3 - Chapter 15 Acids & Bases sour taste react...

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Chapter 15 Acids & Bases
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2 Properties of Acids sour taste react with “active” metals i.e., Al, Zn, Fe, but not Cu, Ag, or Au 2 Al + 6 HCl →2 AlCl 3 + 3 H 2 corrosive react with carbonates, producing CO 2 marble, baking soda, chalk, limestone CaCO 3 + 2 HCl CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O change color of vegetable dyes blue litmus turns red react with bases to form ionic salts
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3 Common Acids Chemical Name Formula Uses Strength Nitric Acid HNO 3 explosive, fertilizer, dye, glue Strong Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 explosive, fertilizer, dye, glue, batteries Strong Hydrochloric Acid HCl metal cleaning, food prep, ore refining, stomach acid Strong Phosphoric Acid H 3 PO 4 fertilizer, plastics & rubber, food preservation Moderate Acetic Acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 plastics & rubber, food preservation, Vinegar Weak Hydrofluoric Acid HF metal cleaning, glass etching Weak Carbonic Acid H 2 CO 3 soda water Weak Boric Acid H 3 BO 3 eye wash Weak
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4 Structures of Acids binary acids have acid hydrogens attached to a nonmetal atom HCl, HF
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5 Structure of Acids oxy acids have acid hydrogens attached to an oxygen atom H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3
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6 Structure of Acids carboxylic acids have COOH group HC 2 H 3 O 2 , H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 only the first H in the formula is acidic the H is on the COOH
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7 Properties of Bases also known as alkalis taste bitter alkaloids = plant product that is alkaline often poisonous solutions feel slippery change color of vegetable dyes different color than acid red litmus turns blue react with acids to form ionic salts neutralization
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8 Common Bases Chemical Name Formula Common Name Uses Strength sodium hydroxide NaOH lye, caustic soda soap, plastic, petrol refining Strong potassium hydroxide KOH caustic potash soap, cotton, electroplating Strong calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 slaked lime cement Strong sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 baking soda cooking, antacid Weak magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 milk of magnesia antacid Weak ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, {NH 3 (aq)} ammonia water detergent, fertilizer, explosives, fibers Weak
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9 Structure of Bases most ionic bases contain OH ions NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 some contain CO 3 2- ions CaCO 3 NaHCO 3 molecular bases contain structures that react with H + mostly amine groups
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10 Indicators chemicals which change color depending on the acidity/basicity many vegetable dyes are indicators anthocyanins litmus from Spanish moss red in acid, blue in base phenolphthalein found in laxatives red in base, colorless in acid
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Arrhenius Theory bases dissociate in water to produce OH - ions and cations ionic substances dissociate in water NaOH( aq ) Na + ( aq ) + OH ( aq ) acids ionize in water to produce H + ions and anions because molecular acids are not made of ions, they cannot dissociate they must be pulled apart, or ionized , by the water HCl( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl
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pk 2 chem 3 - Chapter 15 Acids & Bases sour taste react...

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