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Unformatted text preview: Homeland Security and Emergency Management Emergency Homeland Security and Emergency Management Emergency Objective 1.0 Discuss Course Content and Objectives Discuss
Preliminary questions: How serious is the threat of terrorism to the U.S. and to How Americans today? Americans Is the threat of domestic terrorism more or less serious Is than the threat of international terrorism? than What agencies should be responsible for dealing with What domestic and international threats of terrorism? domestic How should communities deal with the threat of terrorism? Who should pay for counter-terrorism programs? The Who federal government? State governments? Local governments? governments? Objective 1.2 : Define Homeland Security, terrorism, Objective international terrorism, domestic terrorism, and “weapons of mass destruction” “weapons Homeland Security and domestic preparedness Homeland were the principal terms used to describe the efforts to deal with terrorist threats in the late 1990s. Domestic preparedness was the term used in the Department of Justice and law enforcement agencies and homeland security became the term used in the Department of Defense and its related programs. As the international threat took on greater importance after the attacks on September 11, 2001, “homeland security” became the dominant term (although “domestic preparedness” is still used). (although Objective 1.2 : Define Homeland Security, terrorism, Objective international terrorism, domestic terrorism, and “weapons of mass destruction” “weapons Today, Homeland Security principally refers to Today, Homeland the constituent programs of the Department of Homeland Security. DHS includes programs that focus on border security, transportation security, and national preparedness to deal with natural and technological hazards and disasters (i.e., emergency management). emergency Homeland Security still is associated primarily with Homeland counter-terrorism programs because that is the central mission of DHS. central Define Terrorism Define Terrorism is certainly not a new political phenomenon. It Terrorism has been used in political and nonpolitical conflicts since humans were cave dwellers, if not longer. humans Terrorism is distinguished from other forms of violence or Terrorism threats in terms of its intended psychological impact (meaning “terror”) and its intended victims. (meaning Terrorism is also a matter of perception. It may be Terrorism perceived differently by different people and groups. Defining terrorism precisely has been a serious problem Defining because, as the cliché goes, “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.” If you agree with the cause, you don’t tend to call them terrorists, in other words. don’t Define Terrorism Define
Definitions of terrorism most frequently include the following Definitions terrorism elements: elements: a. the use or threat of extraordinary violence; b. goal-directed or rational behavior; c. the intent to have a psychological impact broader than c. the immediate victims; and the d. the choice of victims for their symbolic, rather than their d. instrumental, value (Waugh, 1990, p. 50). instrumental, Terrorism may be politically motivated, but it may also be Terrorism religiously, criminally, or even economically motivated. The subject here is political terrorism. subject Define Terrorism Define According to Title 22 of the United States Code - “The According term ‘terrorism’ means premeditated, politically motivated term means violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.” This is the definition used by federal agencies (Department of State, 2003, p. xiii). Attacks on military personnel who are on duty would not Attacks qualify as terrorism under the federal legal definition, although the impact may be terroristic. By both definitions, terrorism is goal-directed or rational By behavior and not just the acts of crazy people. There is a purpose, although it may be difficult to discern. Define Terrorism Define Terrorism has been a means of demoralizing opposing military forces Terrorism and civilian populations, eliminating and discouraging political opposition, changing government policies, causing economic losses, and so on. Terrorism is often conceptualized as part of a continuum of violence Terrorism ranging from terrorism to guerrilla warfare or insurgency to civil war. In terrorism this conceptualization, civilians are the chosen targets because terrorist groups are inherently weak and cannot engage in sustained attacks on police and military personnel. The capacity to attack law enforcement and military personnel permits antigovernment groups to escalate the level of “warfare.” These terms have been used by the US military in Iraq to characterize the escalation of violence from insurgency to civil war. insurgency A central assumption in this view of terrorism is that the violence, if not central stopped, will escalate and ultimately jeopardize the survival of the state. Use of the term “insurgents” to describe those who attack U.S. troops in Iraq is a reflection of this view. troops Define Terrorism Define International terrorism involves violence or threats of violence for political purposes by groups supported by a foreign government. The support may be overt or covert. An example is the Libyan terrorists who used a bomb to destroy Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988. 1988. Transnational terrorism involves violence or threats of violence by groups acting independently or largely independently of foreign governments. An example is the Al Qaeda organization which may well have received funding and other support from foreign governments, but has acted largely on its own. has Define “Weapons of Mass Destruction” Define
The term weapons of mass destruction is defined in law, but it is ambiguous in The weapons practice. practice. The Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 (also known as The the Nunn-Lugar-Dominici Act) defined “weapons of mass destruction” as “any weapon or device that is intended, or has the capability, to cause death or serious bodily injury to a significant number of people through the release, dissemination, or impact of dissemination, toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors; a disease organism; or radiation or radioactivity” (Section 1403). The act cites the potential transfer of devices, materials, and information on The nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons from the former Soviet states to terrorist organizations and hostile nations as a major concern of policymakers. terrorist Define “Weapons of Mass Destruction” Define Chemical, biological, and nuclear or radiological Chemical, weapons or materials, also called NBC or CBR depending upon the agency, still tends to be the interpretation of “weapons of mass destruction” although there is increasing use of broader definitions, such as CBRNE or chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive weapons. The latter component, explosive weapons, was The added because the use of fertilizer bombs in Oklahoma City and in the first World Trade Center attack in 1993. attack Define “Weapons of Mass Destruction” Define Some analysts prefer using the term “mass Some casualty weapons” to include military explosives, automatic weapons, and essentially any other weapon that can kill or injure many people. Other analysts prefer using the term “weapons of Other mass effect” to differentiate between weapons and materials that might kills or injure many people or cause great destruction from small amounts of chemical, biological, or radiological material that can have only limited effect. can Define “Weapons of Mass Destruction” Define
Determining whether terrorists are likely to Determining use chemical, biological, or nuclear “weapons of mass destruction” or conventional bombs, military explosives, and automatic weapons (the more common weapons of terrorist groups) is extremely important in the design of effective anti- and counterterrorist policies and programs. Objective 1.3 Objective Describe and discuss the domestic Describe terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist The U.S. has had a long history of political violence The including racist and anti-Semitic attacks (i.e., hate crimes), anti-abortion attacks, anti-tax activity, anti-war activity, labor conflict, environmental extremism, and, recently, antilabor globalism activity. The principal forms of terrorism found in the U.S. now are The associated with racist groups and individuals and with extreme anti-abortion, animal rights, environmental, and anti-tax groups/anti-government groups. In recent years, the violence has become more diffuse and In less identifiable with specific extremist organizations. Describe and discuss the domestic terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist Individual terrorists or small groups of terrorists Individual are much more difficult to identify and apprehend than larger groups. than The availability of automatic weapons and The explosives, including assault rifles and hand grenades, has concerned law enforcement officials. Weapons ranging from hand held antiofficials. aircraft missiles (e.g., Stinger missiles) to C-4 aircraft explosive, have been unaccounted for on military bases. bases. Describe and discuss the domestic terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist
White supremacists, and anti-abortion groups are generally identified as White the most violent and active domestic terrorist groups. “Patriot” organizations include militias and “common law courts” and have Patriot” been most active in the Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Midwest, and Florida. The activities of such groups range from verbal confrontation to very violent action. Their political philosophies are often a mix of religion and politics. The major events that have mobilized the “patriot” organizations have been the Ruby Ridge shootout in 1992 that resulted in the deaths of the wife the and son of Randy Weaver, a white supremacist, and a federal law enforcement officer, and enforcement the siege, shootout, and fire at the Branch Davidian compound in the Waco, Texas, on April 19, 1993, which resulted in the deaths of four Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms agents and 92 members of the Davidian group and lead to the bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. Oklahoma Describe and discuss the domestic terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist The bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma The City on April 19, 1995, by anti-government terrorists, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, was a response to the events in Waco, likely targeting BATF and other federal law enforcement offices in the building. The bombing killed 168 people, including children in a daycare center on the first floor. first Militia groups have become less active since the bombing Militia of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, although it is believed that one or more domestic groups or individuals were responsible for the anthrax attacks on government offices following the World Trade Centers and Pentagon attacks by international terrorists in September 2001 and more recent attacks using Ricin, a poisonous agent made from beans. Describe and discuss the domestic terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist The white supremacist groups include the Ku Klux Klan, The Neo-Nazis, Aryan Nations, White Aryan Resistance, the Order, the Christian Patriots, the Christian Identify, and the “skinheads.” “skinheads.” Members of domestic terrorist groups have bombed Members government offices, women’s clinics, newspaper offices, white supremacist and related groups have also been arrested for trying to bomb federal offices, and courthouses, as well as the offices of the Southern Anticourthouses, Poverty Law Center (which monitors racist and other Poverty radical groups), the Anti-Defamation League (which monitors anti-Semitic and other violent groups), and the NAACP (which monitors racist group activity). Describe and discuss the domestic terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist
Members of domestic terrorist groups have bombed government offices, Members women’s clinics, newspaper offices, white supremacist and related groups have also been arrested for trying to bomb federal offices, and courthouses, as well as the offices of the Southern Anti-Poverty Law Center (which monitors racist and other radical groups), the AntiCenter Defamation League (which monitors anti-Semitic and other violent Defamation groups), and the NAACP (which monitors racist group activity). Fortunately, there have not been many cases of terrorist attacks using “weapons of mass destruction” in which many people have been killed or injured and there have been no cases of attacks using nuclear devices, although terrorist organizations have such capabilities. devices, There have been a number of attacks with alleged anthrax and ricin and, There during the late 1990s, responders were having to deal with frequent incidents. The incidents, most involving mailed letters or boxes containing suspicious powder, became disruptive and costly for local governments. Response protocols usually required evacuations, decontamination, and transport of those exposed to medical facilities. U.S. policy concerning domestic terrorism
The U.S. policy regarding domestic terrorism is that it is essentially criminal activity and should be prosecuted as such. In the U.S. criminal justice system, the federal government has primary jurisdiction over certain kinds of crimes. For example, federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in cases involving crimes against banks (e.g., robberies), counterfeiting, kidnappings, aircraft piracy (e.g., “skyjackings”), organized crime, violations of civil rights (e.g., “hate crimes”), interstate flight to avoid prosecution, bombs, and terrorism. bombs, When violent acts or threats of violence are determined to be When “terrorism” the FBI is automatically the lead agency. Nonetheless, until federal law enforcement agents arrive on the scene, local law enforcement officers are responsible for managing the crisis. [ responsible U.S. policy concerning domestic terrorism U.S.
The FBI has been reorganized since September 11, The 2001, to deal with the threat of terrorism and that reorganization, including the relationship between the Department of Justice and FBI and the Department of Homeland Security will be described in a later session. described Domestic terrorists have used “weapons of mass Domestic destruction.” However, a large percentage of the incidents involved threats or possession of chemical or biological (CB) materials, rather than attacks and only a few involved radiological materials (radium and plutonium residue). U.S. policy concerning domestic terrorism U.S.
Because of the potential for jurisdictional confusion during large special Because events (e.g., political conventions, the Superbowl, the World Series, the Olympics, the NCAA Final Four playoffs, or a visit by the Pope) officials normally develop protocols for the transfer of lead responsibility from state and local law enforcement agencies who normally have jurisdiction to federal agencies who assume jurisdiction if there is an act of terrorism. if Federal law enforcement agencies also provide training and technical Federal assistance to state and local agencies prior to such events and maintain liaisons with the agencies involved in event security. State and local governments are increasingly preparing to deal with terrorist violence, but are heavily dependent upon federal money and technical assistance. As the expected “first responders” to large-scale terrorist incidents, many larger local police departments have developed special operations units. units. U.S. policy concerning domestic terrorism U.S.
Under the provisions of Presidential Decision Under Directive 39 (PDD 39) and the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996, state and local agencies are receiving equipment from the U.S. Department of Defense and other federal agencies to build their capacities to deal with large-scale terrorist incidents in general and nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) incidents in particular. U.S. policy concerning domestic terrorism U.S.
U.S. counterterrorist efforts were also bolstered by two U.S. Presidential decision directives (PDDs) in 1998. PDD-62 clarified the missions of U.S. agencies involved in PDD-62 counterterrorism, enhancing response capabilities and focusing efforts to protect America’s computer networks. It also created the position of National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counterterrorism. Security, PDD-63 outlined a national program to protect the nation’s PDD-63 telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, transportation, and government infrastructures. It provides for risk assessment and planning and established linkages among public agencies and private firms. among Objective 1.4 Objective Describe and discuss the international Describe terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist According to U.S. State Department statistics According in Table 1-1, the number of international attacks has been declining, Errors were made in the classification of events in the 2003 State Department report and the corrected data were used in Table 1-1. Describe and discuss the international terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist While it is difficult to generalize on the basis of a only few While years, Table 1-2 generally indicates that the numbers of international terrorist attacks in Asia, and Eurasia have increased in recent years and the numbers in Africa, Latin America, North American and Western Europe have declined while the number in the Middle East has remained relatively stable. The Iraq War undoubtedly has meant a significant increase The in the number of attacks in the Middle East. in The changing nature of terrorist violence is evident in the The steep decline in the number of attacks in Western Europe. In 1993, there were 185 attacks and, in 1995, there were 277 attacks in Western Europe. Describe and discuss the international terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist As Table 1-3 indicates, most international terrorist attacks As during the 1997-2002 period were directed against businesses. businesses. The relatively small numbers of attacks on military facilities The is because of the increased risk in such attacks to the terrorists themselves. Unfortified and unguarded civilian facilities are much safer targets than military installations. The insurgency in Iraq clearly has escalated beyond The attacks on Allied and Iraqi military forces which indicates the capacities of the insurgent forces Although increasingly fortified, diplomatic facilities often Although have exposed locations in urban areas that make them vulnerable to bombs and rocket attacks, as happened in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998. Tanzania Describe and discuss the international terrorist threat to the U.S. in general terms terrorist The frequency and nature of the attacks on U.S. facilities in The the late 1980s and early 1990s illustrates the cyclic nature of international terrorism. The US State Department report following the bombings of The the US Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in+ 1998 described a pattern of attacks against U.S. embassies, U.S. Information Service cultural centers, and other facilities in Europe, particularly Spain, in the late 1980s. The largest numbers of attacks, however, were in Latin America and South Korea and some facilities were attacked many times. The most common attacks were bombings. bombings. U.S. policy concerning international and transnational terrorism before 9/11 transnational Support for a very strict policy against terrorists has been difficult to Support achieve because nations are sometimes reluctant to agree to a general policy to punish terrorists because they support political groups that may be characterized as terrorist by some. may The most success achieved in combating terrorism through The international agreements has been in those areas where many nations are vulnerable – such as protecting diplomatic personnel and facilities and protecting civil aviation. The Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (Nunn-LugarDominici) Act of 1996 also addressed the threat of international Dominici) terrorism and gave the Department of Defense a major role in dealing with acts of terrorism. The act specifically mentioned concerns about weapons and materials from the Soviet states being given to terrorists and hostile states. and PDD-39, signed by President Clinton in 1995, designated the U.S. PDD-39, State Department as the lead agency for dealing with acts of international terrorism outside of the U.S., while the FBI was designated the lead agency for acts within the U.S. designated U.S. policy concerning international and transnational terrorism before 9/11 transnational The U.S. adopted a “no negotiation, no compromise” policy The in the early 1970s. The policy was adopted to discourage attacks, assuming that terrorists would be less inclined to attack if they had no expectation of achieving their political goals. The U.S. developed a broad range of antiterrorism and The counter-terrorism programs, ranging from structural mitigation measures to reduce the vulnerability of facilities to training counter-terrorism forces to deal with hostage incidents and to pursue terrorists. [The programs in existence prior to 2001 are described in some depth in Terrorism and Emergency Management, 2001] Terrorism The U.S. has actively promoted international agreements The to support the principle of aut punire aut dedere, that aut that nations should punish terrorists or extradite them to a nation that will do so. U.S. policy concerning international and transnational terrorism before 9/11 transnational
Current U.S. policy regarding terrorism is to: “First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike First, no deals. no Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that Third, sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior. behavior. Fourth, bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of Fourth, those countries that work with the United States and require assistance (Department of State, 2003: xi). U.S. policy concerning international and transnational terrorism before 9/11 transnational The U.S. Department of State maintains a list of The states that are known sponsors of terrorism. In 2000, that list included Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. Afghanistan was also identified as a problem because the government permitted Osama bin Laden, the person believed responsible for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, to operate training bases within the country. The Taliban government in Afghanistan was The removed in 2001 and the Hussein government in Iraq was toppled in 2003. Objective 1.5 - Describe and discuss the threats posed by “weapons of mass destruction” in general terms general Many officials and analysts do think that future Many acts of terrorism are more likely to involve conventional bombs and firearms, even homemade weapons, rather than “weapons of mass destruction.” Terrorists have greater access to conventional and Terrorists homemade weapons and they do not require the same level of sophistication that it takes to store, transport, and use chemical, biological, and radiological weapons and materials. radiological Describe and discuss the threats posed by “weapons of mass destruction” in general terms “weapons
Agencies are preparing for a variety of chemical terrorism scenarios: Agencies The worst case scenario is that terrorists might buy, steal, or be given The access to chemical weapons or agents developed by the Soviet weapons complex. Some terrorist organizations have the capacity to make chemical Some agents and delivery systems with which to use them. The attack by Aum Shinrikyo on the Tokyo subway system in 1995 demonstrated that terrorist organizations may be willing to kill hundreds or thousands of people. While the delivery system was very crude and the group had failed in its attempts to use the same kind of material before, they still were able to kill twenty-seven people and injure almost 4000. Domestic groups have used ricin and other chemical agents but with very limited effect. very Terrorist organizations certainly can find toxic materials in many Terrorist American communities. Acids, poisons, and other toxic materials are stored in factories, on farms, chemical plants, and even in some homes. The question is whether terrorists can steal or buy such material in amounts sufficient to pose a serious threat without being detected and apprehended. detected Describe and discuss the threats posed by “weapons of mass destruction” in general terms “weapons Similarly, agencies are preparing for a variety of Similarly, bioterrorism scenarios: bioterrorism The worst case scenario is the release of a The cocktail of biological agents, such as a combination of smallpox and one or more other “weaponized” agents. Smallpox was one of the agents used in the old Soviet weapons program. agents The scenario now familiar because of attacks on The post offices and Congress soon after the September 11th attacks is the use of anthrax spores. Powder leaked from letters in the facilities and infected workers. Describe and discuss the threats posed by “weapons of mass destruction” in general terms “weapons
Agencies are also preparing for a variety of nuclear or Agencies radiological terrorism scenarios: radiological Terrorists may buy, steal, or be given nuclear devices or Terrorists material from the old Soviet weapons complex or from one of the missile or storage facilities. Whether portable or larger nuclear devices are unaccounted for is uncertain, although people with nuclear material have been apprehended by authorities in Europe. apprehended Highly radioactive materials might be hidden in crowded Highly cities and, over time, residents will receive lethal or at least dangerous doses. dangerous A recent focus of concern has been the potential use of “dirty recent bombs” in which a conventional bomb is used to spread radiological material over a wide area. Cleanup of the contamination would be expensive (see Session 6 on “dirty bombs”). bombs”). Objective 1.6 - Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms management The threat of terrorism became the nation’s top priority on The September 11, 2001. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, changed how Americans and many others in the world view the threat of terrorism. The September 11th attacks caused American officials to The reexamine policies designed to deal with terrorism and to organize to defend the nation. The attacks demonstrated the vulnerability of an open society (Flynn, 2004) and encouraged action to limit access to sensitive and often fragile institutions. The agencies and offices responsible for protecting the nation were Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system The structure of the nation’s effort to deal with the The threat underwent profound change with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and the restructuring of other departments and agencies responsible for protecting the nation. agencies The new Department of Homeland Security The presents many challenges in terms of effective coordination and administration and many of the challenges remain. Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system
A series of articles in the National Journal in June of 2002, series National pointed out the need for Congressional action to create an organization that can develop its own culture and mission, assuring information develop sharing and adequate information gathering and analysis, provide “one-stop shopping” for local officials, provide deal with illegal immigrants, deal track down and apprehend terrorists, track develop working relationships with the Departments of develop Defense and of Health and Human Services, deal with transportation security and customs, and, through deal it all, reduce conflict among the organizations and fund the new reduce enterprise without a major increase in the budget. enterprise Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system Is the federal government doing enough to fight Is terrorism? 1. Are we prepared for dirty bombs, chemical 1. attacks, and bioterrorism? attacks, 2. Are the airports, borders, seaports, nuclear 2. facilities, “soft targets” like high-rise buildings, and special events safe from terrorist attack? 3. What forms might the attacks take and what 3. targets might be chosen? targets Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system
How should Homeland Security be organized? William L. Waugh and Richard T. Sylves (2004) have argued that over William 40 federal departments and agencies were involved in dealing with terrorism before September 2001 and the creation of the Department of Homeland Security has not brought all of them under the department’s umbrella. The FBI and CIA, for example, are not part of DHS. DHS. They also argue that the national emergency management system that They evolved over the past two decades includes networks of governmental and nongovernmental organizations that may be needed to deal with a major attack, as they were needed in New York City on September 11th for search and rescue and in the months following to deal with the consequences of the tower collapses. They argue that DHS’ command and control-oriented national security They approach is not conducive to the kinds of information-sharing, collaboration, and public involvement that have characterized the national emergency management system. national Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system According to the Congressional Research Service (Bea, According 2002), the transfer of FEMA to the new Department of Homeland Security raises a number of issues, including how to coordinate the agencies and programs within DHS, how to maintain the “all hazards” approach that has characterized emergency management for the past decade, how help the victims of the September 11th disasters, and whether the comprehensive emergency management model that has come to underlie the national system to deal with disasters is still applicable. system Many questions remain about DHS’s abilities to coordinate Many the national response to the terrorist threat and, at the same time, uphold the missions of its constituent agencies, from FEMA to the U.S. Coast Guard, to deal with natural and technological hazards and disasters. Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system Conflicts among the agencies within DHS and among the Conflicts other agencies involved in dealing with the threat of terrorism, such as the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Defense, continue as evidenced by the coordination problems experienced during the TOPOFF 2 (Top Officials) exercise in 2003. during “Turf wars” erupted among the Congressional committees Turf responsible for dealing with Homeland Security resulted when DHS was created and Congressional oversight may continue to be contentious (Cohen, Gorman, and Freedberg, 2004). Coordination of the efforts of the 22 agencies transferred to Coordination DHS will continue to be a problem (Government Computer News, 2004) and providing adequate funding will be a serious problem, as well (Center for Arms Control and Describe and discuss the impact of the 9/11 attacks on the national emergency management system in general terms system The poor federal responses to Hurricanes The Katrina and Rita in 2005 raise even more questions concerning DHS’ capabilities to address terrorist threats as well as natural and technological disasters. and Objective 1.7- Describe and discuss the impact of the U.S. intergovernmental system on the development of Homeland Security programs development The American federal system has a profound impact upon The public policy and program administration. For example, state laws govern the use of National Guard troops in emergencies, unless the Guard is “federalized.” State and local laws also regulate land-use, building codes, State and building standards which can be important issues in making buildings more resistant to bombs and other terrorist threats. terrorist Local first responders are typically the first to arrive on the Local scene and, therefore, are responsible for managing incidents caused by terrorists until federal agents arrive. The Oklahoma City fire department managed the search and rescue effort after the Murrah Federal Building bombing and the Arlington, Virginia, fire department managed the fire and rescue response to the attack on the Pentagon on September 11th. Describe and discuss the impact of the U.S. intergovernmental system on the development of Homeland Security programs Homeland The City of New York managed the response to and The recovery from the World Trade Center attacks with the assistance of federal agencies and the support of hundreds of other agencies from outside the city. Frank Keating, governor of Oklahoma during the 1995 Frank Murrah Federal Building bombing (Keating, 2004) makes the case for federal investments in capacity building to assure that local responders are prepared to deal with acts of terrorism. Local responders have a critical role in protecting human life and property from terrorist violence and federal support is critical. and Similarly, state governments have critical roles in Similarly, coordinating state and local efforts. Maryland governor Paris Glendening (Glendening, 2004) has made a strong case for federal support pointing out the need for federal support for state preparedness and mitigation efforts. support Describe and discuss the impact of the U.S. intergovernmental system on the development of Homeland Security programs Homeland When President Bush met with NYC Mayor Michael When Bloomberg, they discussed the high cost of Homeland Security to local governments and the need for federal financial assistance. financial The high costs of security to prevent terrorist attack and to The deal with terrorist incidents that do occur are also have serious repercussions for local governments. Local officials need to set their own priorities, including Local whether to focus on WMD when low tech homemade bombs are more likely threats and natural disasters may be be far more likely than terrorist attacks. be Local officials also fear that the Iraq war may “intensify” the Local terror war and encourage more attacks within the U.S. Discussion Questions Discussion Why is it difficult to protect open societies? (See reading Why by Flynn) by Define terrorism. Why is it difficult to distinguish between Define “noncombatants” and “combatants?” “noncombatants” Describe the history of domestic terrorism in the U.S. and Describe international terrorism affecting Americans overseas and at home? What groups and facilities have been at greatest risk of attack? What are the major challenges for the new Department of What Homeland Security that have to be addressed if it is to accomplish its mission? (See readings from the National Journal) Journal Discussion Questions Discussion How safe is the U.S. from terrorist attack today? (See How reading by Ratnesar) reading How might the Department of Homeland Security’s focus How on terrorism undermine its responsibilities to deal with other kinds hazards, particularly natural and technological hazards? (See reading by Waugh and Sylves) Sylves) Why is it difficult for Congress to oversee the Department Why of Homeland Security and fund its programs? (See readings by Cohen, Gorman, and Freedberg and by the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation). Center What did Governor Keating recommend to facilitate What cooperation among local, state, and federal agencies involved in dealing with terrorism? (See reading by Keating) Keating) Discussion Questions Discussion What are the major challenges that states face in What dealing with the threat of terrorism and fulfilling their role in Homeland Security? (See readings by Glendening, USA Today, and Gorman and USA and Freedberg). What are the major challenges that local What governments face in dealing with the threat of terrorism and fulfilling their role in Homeland Security? (See readings by Machacek, USA Today, and Gorman and Freedberg) Today ...
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