chem sf 3 - Entropy Change in State Change when materials...

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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 Entropy Change in State Change when materials change state, the number of macrostates it can have changes as well for entropy: solid < liquid < gas because the degrees of freedom of motion increases solid liquid gas
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 Heat Flow, Entropy, and the 2 nd Law Heat must flow from water to ice in order for the entropy of the universe to increase
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Temperature Dependence of S surroundings when a system process is exothermic, it adds heat to the surroundings, increasing the entropy of the surroundings when a system process is endothermic, it takes heat from the surroundings, decreasing the entropy of the surroundings the amount the entropy of the surroundings changes depends on the temperature it is at originally the higher the original temperature, the less effect addition or removal of heat has T H S system gs surroundin - =
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 Gibbs Free Energy, G maximum amount of energy from the system available to do work on the surroundings G = H T S G sys = H sys T S sys G sys = – T S universe G reaction = Σ n G prod Σ n G react when G < 0, there is a decrease in free energy of the system that is released into the surroundings; therefore a process will be spontaneous when G is negative
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 Gibbs Free Energy, G process will be spontaneous when G is negative G will be negative when H is negative and S is positive exothermic and more random H is negative and large and S is negative but small Largely exothermic and slightly less random H is positive but small and S is positive and large Slightly endothermic and much more random
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