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chem sf 9 - Acid-Base Properties of Salts salts are water...

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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 Acid-Base Properties of Salts salts are water soluble ionic compounds salts that contain the cation of a strong base and an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid are basic NaHCO 3 solutions are basic Na + is the cation of the strong base NaOH HCO 3 is the conjugate base of the weak acid H 2 CO 3 salts that contain cations that are the conjugate acid of a weak base and an anion of a strong acid are acidic NH 4 Cl solutions are acidic NH 4 + is the conjugate acid of the weak base NH 3 Cl is the anion of the strong acid HCl
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Anions as Weak Bases every anion can be thought of as the conjugate base of an acid therefore, every anion can potentially be a base A ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) HA( aq ) + OH ( aq ) the stronger the acid is, the weaker the conjugate base is an anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid is pH neutral Cl ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) HCl( aq ) + OH ( aq ) since HCl is a strong acid, this equilibrium lies practically completely to the left an anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid is basic F ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) HF( aq ) + OH ( aq ) since HF is a weak acid, the position of this equilibrium favors the right
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4 Relationship between K a of an Acid and K b of Its Conjugate Base many reference books only give tables of K a values because K b values can be found from them ] [A ] O HA][H [ ) ( OH ) HA( ) O( H ) ( A [HA] ] O ][H A [ ) ( O H ) ( A ) O( H ) HA( 3 b 2 3 a 3 2 - + - - + - + - = + + = + + K aq aq l aq K aq aq l aq when you add equations, you multiply the K ’s ) ( OH ) ( O H ) O( H 2 3 2 aq aq l - + + w 3 b a 3 b a ] OH ][ O H [ ] A [ ] OH ][ HA [ ] HA [ ] O H ][ A [ K K K K K = = × × = × - + - - + -
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 Polyatomic Cations as Weak Acids some cations can be thought of as the conjugate acid of a base others are the counterions of a strong base therefore, some cation can potentially be an acid MH + ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) MOH( aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq ) the stronger the base is, the weaker the conjugate acid is a cation that is the counterion of a strong base is pH neutral a cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base is acidic NH
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