Unformatted text preview: 710 Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Finding the [OH’] and pH of a Weak Base Solution (15.7) -Examp1e 15.12 - For Practice 15.12 - Exercises 83, 84 Determining Whether an Anion Is Basic or Neutral (15.8) -Example 15.13 - For Practice 15.13 - Exercises 89, 90 Determining the pH of a Solution Containing an Anion Acting as a Base (15.8) 'Example 15.14 ' For Practice 15.14 - Exercises 91, 92 Determining Whether a Cation Is Acidic or Neutral (15.8) Determining the Overall Acidity or Basicity of Salt Solutions (15.8) -Examp1e 15.15 - For Practice 15.15 - Exercises 93, 94 -Example 15.16 - For Practice 15.16 - Exercises 95, 96 Finding the pH of a Polyprotic Acid Solution (15.9) 'Example 15.17 ' For Practice 15.17 - Exercises 105, 106 Finding the [H30+] in Dilute H2804 Solutions (15.9) -Examp1e 15.18 - For Practice 15.18 - Exercise 109 Finding the Concentration of the Anions for a Weak Diprotic Acid Solution (15.9) 'Example 15.19 ' For Practice 15.19 ' Exercises 107, 108 Exercises Review Questions 1. 10. ll.
l2. l3. 14. 15. 16. 17. What causes heartburn? What are some possible ways to alleviate
heartburn? . What are the general physical and chemical properties of acids? Of bases? . What is a carboxylic acid? Give an example. What is the Arrhenius deﬁnition of an acid? Of a base?
What is a hydronium ion? Does H+ exist in solution by itself?
What is the Bronsted—Lowry deﬁnition of an acid? Of a base? . Why is there more than one deﬁnition of acid—base behavior? Which deﬁnition is the right one? . Describe amphoteric behavior and give an example.
. What is a conjugate acid—base pair? Give an example. Explain the difference between a strong acid and weak acid and
give one example of each. What are diprotic and triprotic acids? Give an example of each.
Give the deﬁnition of the acid ionization constant and explain its
signiﬁcance. Write an equation for the autoionization of Water and an expres-
sion for the ion product constant for water (Kw). What is ﬁre
value of Kw at 25 °C? What happens to the [011—] of a solution when the [H3O+] is in-
creased? Decreased? What is the deﬁnition of pH? What pH range is considered acidic?
Basic? Neutral? What is the deﬁnition of pOH? What pOH range is considered
acidic? Basic? Neutral? In most solutions containing a strong or weak acid, the auto-
ionization of water can be neglected when computing [H30+].
Explain why this is so. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
3 1. 32. When computing [H3O+] for weak acid solutions, we can
often use the x is small approximation. Explain the nature of this
approximation and why it is valid. What is the percent ionization of an acid? Explain what happens
to the percent ionization of a weak acid as a function of the con-
centration of the weak acid solution. In computing [H3O+] for a mixture of a strong acid and weak
acid, the weak acid can often be neglected. Explain why this is so.
Write a generic equation showing how a weak base ionizes water.
How can you determine whether an anion will act as a weak base?
Write a generic equation showing the reaction by which an anion,
A_, acts as a weak base. What is the relationship between the acid ionization constant for
a weak acid (Ka) and the base ionization constant for its conjugate
base (Kb?) What kinds of cations act as weak bases? Give some examples.
When calculating the [H30+] for a polyprotic acid, the second
ionization step can often be neglected. Explain why this is so. For a weak diprotic acid HZX, What is the relationship between
[X2_] and K32? Under what conditions does this relationship exist?
For a binary acid, H—Y, what factors affect the relative ease with
which the acid ionizes? What factors affect the relative acidity of an oxyacid? What is the Lewis deﬁnition of an acid? of a base? What is a general characteristic of a Lewis acid? of a Lewis base?
What is acid rain? What causes it and where is the problem the
greatest? What are ﬁre main detrimental effects of acid rain? What is being
done to address the problem of acid rain? ...
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- Spring '06