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GeneticsTerms - Genetics Terms You should review the...

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Genetics Terms You should review the genetics terminology which follows. Be sure that you understand the underlying concepts. 1. Gametes - A mature male or female reproductive cell (Sperm or Egg). Each cell is haploid. 2. Chromosome - Dark staining structures, made up of DNA and protein, which are microscopically observable in the cell during cell division. They contain the genes arranged in linear order. Each species has a characteristic number. 3. Homologous Chromosomes - In diploid organisms, chromosomes occur in pairs. The members of each pair are the same (i.e. they are alike in size and shape, and have genes concerned with the same hereditary trait). A pair of these chromosomes are referred to as homologous chromosomes. Haploid organisms have only 1 of each pair. 4. Gene - A unit of inheritance; a unit of DNA, located in a fixed place on the chromosome. 5. Locus - The position a gene occupies on a chromosome. 6. Alleles - Genes that occupy the same locus on homologous chromosomes and affect the same characteristic.
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