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Unformatted text preview: C OM 391 E XAM 2 R EVIEW S HEET K ANE , N O WAY MY SON 2 patterns of gender typing, data and method • Dads “police” gender more than Moms • “Policing” is more evident in treatment of sons than daughters All findings • General celebration of female non-conformity ◦ sports, clothing, trucks of building toys • General celebration of son's domestic behavior, empathy and nurturing ◦ Kitchens and cooking • Fathers are less enthusiastic and more likely to offer rules Icons of Femininity • Negative responses toward sons for: ◦ pink ◦ frilly ◦ nail polish ◦ barbies ◦ ballet Negative Responses • Many parents expressed concern for their sons about: ◦ Excessive emotionality ▪ Don't want to be a sissy ◦ Passivity ▪ need to fight for what you want ◦ Homosexuality Conclusion • Fathers see sons' masculinity as a reflection of their own preferences ◦ personal failure (fathers) • Straight and lesbian mothers and gay fathers more likely to use others as a reference point T ANNEN , Y OU JUST DON ’ T U NDERSTAND World of Status • In a world of status, independence is key, because a primary means of establishing status is to tell others what to do, and taking orders is a marker of low status. World of Connection • Intimidate is key in a world of connection where individuals negotiate complex networks of friendship, minimize differences, try to reach consensus, and avoid the appearance of superiority, which would highlight differences. Asymmetries • Women want the gift of understanding, but men give the gift of advice. • Men take the role as problem solver, whereas women simply want confirmation for their feelings Troubles Talk • If women are often frustrated because men do not respond to their troubles by offering matching troubles, men are often frustrated because women do. • Some men not only take no comfort in such response; they take offense. Problem Solving • If women resent men's tendency to offer solutions to problems, men complain about women's refusal to take action to solve the problems they complain about. • Since many men see themselves as problem solvers, a complaint or a trouble is a challenge to their ability to think of a solution. Distinctions between men’s and women’s speech communities • Women balance a delicate system by which troubles talk is used to confirm their feelings and create a sense of community • when women confront men's way of talking to them, they judge them by standards of women's conversational styles. Fulfs and Goldsmith’s main claim and critiques • more recent literature reviews and meta-analysis typically report small effect sizes and situational variability regarding the type and size of gender differences ▪ small effect size: power of a variable, can't predict it very well, sex doesn't matter ▪ situational variability: can''t take gender out of centext V ERBAL C OMMUNICATION Male Generic Language • Excludes women, but is supposed to “include” both men and women, examples:...
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- Spring '07
- Nonverbal Communication, Male Generic Language