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Classical Civilizations - Mesopotamia between the...

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Mesopotamia- “between the waters” -Greek term “land between waters” -“Fertile Crescent” -3500-2350 bce- Sumerians -1900-1600 bce-Babylonians -Tigris and Euphrates were unpredictable, damns, dikes, and ditches were built as a result. -built cities -highly centralized society governed by ruling class -“Lugal”-big man -First to develop written language in Western tradition -3300 bce-script ewulled cuneiform -Before 2000 bce- Gilgamesh epic- Sumerian -Hammurabi (1792-1750 bce) -Babylonian -“Hammurabi’s Code” -harsh, favored ruling class, systematic, consistent set of regulations rather than ruler’s will govern society. -Polytheistic -temples -built of clay -Ziggurnts-pyramidish -base- 60 system still used in time and navigation. Sumerians Southern Mesopotamia Civilization Beginning of agriculture Neolithic Revolution/Agriculture 1 st to develop cuneiform (formal writing tools) 12-month calendar Astronomy # System based on 12, 60 and 360 Ziggurats- temples at top—dedicated
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è 1500 BCE, Babylonians conquer Sumerians *compare to Greece and Rome Babylonians N of Tigris and Euphrates Today is Baghdad Hammurabi’s codes- 1 st set of laws made by secular ruler Hittites conquered them in 1500 BCE- iron (Hittites) vs. bronze (Babylonians) Hittites Iron- good fighters (best in Mesopotamia?) Dominate around 1200 BCE Assyrians defeat Hittites (1400 BCE) Assyria Capital in Nineveh Cruel, brutal, which helped spread civilization Conquered by Chaldeans, who became Babylonians Neo-Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar Built Babylon into the known- “Hanging Gardens” Conquered by Hebrews Conquered by Persians Persia All Middle East (minus Saudi Arabia) and part of India Height at 500 BCE Conquered Turkey 1 st to build empire <- 1 st recognized civilization Road system armies Taxes multiple city/state government Education Lydians Made money- 1 st ; no more bartering Phoenicians Alphabet- phonics; letters, sounds, combinations have meanings- 22/26 of our alphabet
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Good sailors and traders Bring civilization to Europe (Greece) Hebrews/ Jews/ Israelites 1 st monotheistic in world history Spread single God idea by conquering and being conquered Smart- demonstrated useful intelligence y conquering best land Ancient Egypt NE Africa along Nile 3 sections- upper, middle, lower Nile floods regularly- fertile soil irrigation Most pyramids and tombs in Middle Egypt in Valley of the Gods Big 3 pyramids in Giza in Lower Egypt Climate *Warm *delta *Good trade because of water Important cities Lower- Cairo, Giza Middle- Thebes Natural borders East- Red Sea North- Med Sea West- Desert South- mountains Outline: 3500 BCE~ Archaic Kingdom (King Menes unified Egypt in 3100 BCE) 3100 BCE~ Old Kingdom (Pyramids) 2181- 2125 BCE ~ 1 st Intermediate (Political chaos) 2125-1650 BCE ~ Middle Kingdom (Recovery) 1650-1550 BCE ~ 2 nd Intermediate (Hyksus Invasion— Hittites) 1550-100 BCE ~ New Kingdom (create Egyptian empire and A. Kanaten’s religious strategy begins * Monotheism *) Centralized Government
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