Chp14Notes.docx - The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500...

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The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500 Church Reform and the Crusades The Age of Faith Problems in the Church : Many village priests married and had families. Such marriages were against Church rulings. Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice called simony. Using the practice of lay investiture, kings appointed church bishops. Church reformers believed the Church alone should appoint bishops. Reform and Church Organization : Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests. The popes who followed Leo and Gregory reorganized the Church to continue the policy of reform. New Religious Orders : Dominic, a Spanish priest, founded the Dominicans, one of the earliest orders of friars. Because Dominic emphasized the importance of study, many Dominicans were scholars. Francis of Assisi, an Italian, founded another order of friars, the Franciscans. Francis treated all creatures, including animals, as if they were his spiritual brothers and sisters. Cathedrals- Cities of God A New Style of Church Architecture : a new style of architecture, known as Gothic, evolved throughout medieval Europe. The term Gothic comes from a Germanic tribe named the Goths. Unlike the heavy, gloomy Romanesque buildings, Gothic cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward heaven. Light streamed in through huge stained glass windows. Other arts of the medieval world were evident around or in the Gothic cathedral—sculpture, wood- carvings, and stained glass windows. All of these elements were meant to inspire the worshiper with the magnificence of God. The Crusades Goals of the Crusades: The Crusades had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives. Muslims controlled Palestine (the Holy Land) and threatened Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor in Constantinople appealed to Christians to stop Muslim attacks. In addition, the pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom, which had split into Eastern and Western branches in 1054. The First and Second Crusades : Pope Urban’s call brought a tremendous outpouring of religious feeling and support for the Crusade. According to the pope, those who died on Crusade were assured of a place in heaven. With red crosses sewn on tunics worn over their armor and the battle cry of “God wills it!” on their lips, knights and commoners were fired by religious zeal and became Crusaders. Most of the Crusaders were French, but Bohemians, Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians, and Spaniards came as well. The Crusaders were ill-prepared for war in this First Crusade. Many knew nothing of the geography, climate, or culture of the Holy Land. The Third Crusade : The Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem was led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs. They were Philip II (Augustus) of France, German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), and the English king, Richard the Lion-Hearted. Philip argued with Richard and went home. Barbarossa drowned on the journey. So, Richard was left to lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin. Both Richard and Saladin were brilliant warriors. After many

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