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05 Shipwrecks of the Explorers - Shipwrecks of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Shipwrecks of the Explorers RUDIMENTTARY MAPS WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS Alonso de Hojeda 1499 (1ST of 11 minor voyages between 1499 to 1505, PROBABLY OTHERS) Attacked and took 2 ships along the coast of Spain and pillaged supplies in European waters and the Canaries John Cabot 1497 &1498, DID NOT DISAPPEAR More profit in raiding the Portuguese for slaves The Molasses Reef Wreck History of the site Discovered early 1970s by sports divers, Turks and Caicos Islands, in the Caribbean. Pillaged by treasure hunters and blasted by vandals just before the Institute of Nautical Archaeology started archaeological excavations. The archaeological excavations lasted between 1982 and 1986. Description of the site The wreck consisted of a ballast pile of about 11 x 3 m, 60 cm high, weighing about 35 tons. Extended Site Grid Artifacts were found up into the reef to the north and on the other side of a finger reef Ballast pile preserved less than 2% of the hull Some hull planking, framing, and ceiling planking survived No keel, stem or stern posts Preserved gudgeon, sternpost had a sided (wide) dimension of 20 cm. Frames Twentyfour frames or frame positions were found in place. size and spacing Master frame double futtocks - amidships Dovetail joints, with mortise futtocks, wider side up Planks caravel construction Most Northern European ships lapstrake construction until early 16th century naval guns influenced change Caulking Thin strips of lead had been forced between the strakes places [Spanish] Caulking was found wrapped around the planking nail heads ARMAMENT VERSO WAS MOST COMMON 16 ON MOLASSES REEF WRECK, 40 BREECH BLOCKS RAPID FIRE WEAPONS BREECH BLOCKS DIFFERENT SIZES FOR DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF POWDER SWIVEL GUNS, WIDE RANGE LARGEST WEAPONS 2BOMBARDETAS, 1CERBATANA OLDER STYLE , MORE COMMON IN 15TH CENTURY LABOR INTENSIVE TO MAKE WELDED IRON BARS REINFORCED WITH IRON BANDS 2 BOMBARDETAS AND CERBATANA MOUNTED ON A CARRIAGE ANCHOR AND BOMBADETAS ON BALLAST, CERBATANA POSTION UNKNOWN Guns on ballast suggest transported in hold across Atlantic, reduced center of gravity, cleared decks REMAINS OF 2 ARQUEBUCES SHOULDER ARMS MRW SHOT 9 GRENADES HOLLOW, FILLED WITH GUNPOWDER & HAD FUSE 137 SOLID IRON SHOT FROM 5 DIFFERENT MOLDS 69 LEAD/IRON COMPOSITE SHOT 4 WROUGHT IRON 15 SOLID LEAD FOR HAQUEBUTS AND ARQUEBUCES WEAPONS COULD DO LITTLE DAMAGE TO AN OPPOSING SHIP ANTIPERSONNEL WEAPONS ALSO USED TO CONQUOR STONE AGE PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS CHINESE OR JAPANESE OPPOSITION, HEAVILY ARMED AT THIS TIME Anchors Five anchors found, two from other vessels. One sheet anchor, one small boat anchor, one grapnel anchor. Ceramics Fragments of olive jars, basins (lebrillos), bowls (escudillas), jars, and pots (orzas). Pump-valves Leg-irons (grillos) Ballast A total of 35 tons Lisbon, possible origin. Other stones from the Azores, Canaries, or Maderia, the east coast of Spain, and Bristol, England Dating and identification of the wreck Medium-size ship, perhaps 18 to 21 m on deck, nao or caravela. Artifacts and location suggests early period of Spanish expansion Pinzon, 1500 or de Leon, 1513 Slaver? No documents So few artifacts suggest the ship was stripped. The Highborn Cay Wreck History of the site Identity unknown Date first half of the 16th century Found 1965 by sport divers, Extensively salvaged. 1966, inspected by Mendel Peterson, Smithsonian Inst. INA Survey, 1983 Limited excavations in 1986 Description of the site A 20 x 8 m ballast mound Hull remains keel, keelson, mast step, floors, futtocks, planking, ceiling and stringer The ends of the hull were exposed and a trench excavated amidships. Keel, keelson and maststep Keel not preserved at ends A groove in the seabed, estimated length 12.6 m Keelson notched over floors Mast step part of keelson Pumps and pump wells Frames Similar to Molasses Reef wreck Futtocks & floors dovetail joints. Upside down compared to Molasses Reef wreck Ballast No information , estimated 7075 metric tons Armament Two bombardetas, at least 13 swivel guns. Anchors One large anchor on ballast pile. Two others 100 150 m away from the ballast pile. Artifacts No coins, navigational instruments, or any other precisely datable artifacts INA did a partial excavation in 1986 Dating and identification of the wreck Medium-size ship, nao or caravel Date 1) The lead-covered iron shot places the wreck between 1500 and 1570. 2) The iron artillery points to the early 16th century. Difficult to identify without diagnostic artifacts So far no documental evidence Never completely excavated The Baha Mujeres Wreck Bahia Mujeres wreck found 1958 by sports divers In 1959 or 1960, site was salvaged by Edwin Link. 1960 & 61 CEDAM 1983 and 1984, site surveyed and artifacts recorded by Texas A&M University and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Description of the site Ballast mound, 20 m long, and 4 to 8 m wide. Site never excavated, don't know if any hull remains or other artifacts survive Armament 1958 salvaged 1 verso and probably two other guns. 1959 or 1960 at least 1 gun taken CEDAM 60 & 61, 1 falconete, 1 bombardeta, 1 verso, and 3 breech blocks. Dating and identification of the wreck Bahia Mujeres vessel probably nao or caravel The artillery found on this site places the wreck in the first half of the 16th century. No diagnostic artifacts found on this site Ships were relatively small about 20 meters (66 feet) Carried between 25 and 70 tons of ballast Guns stowed below during ocean voyages Carvel planked Built of oak The Atlantic Vessel A ship capable of surviving an Atlantic crossing and returning. The product of years of development, experimentation and trial Iberian ships not the only Atlantic vessel ...
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