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Unformatted text preview: Spanish Shipwrecks From Spain Leaving Seville, April or May, sail South to the Canary Islands (1 week), then West to the Antilles, (1 month). From the Canaries to the Caribbean 3 ways out of the Caribbean Ships brought almost everything to New World Restrictions on production of most goods, Mercantilism, force colonies to depend on Mother country In the Caribbean they divided into two fleets: Nueva Espaa: gold, silver, copper, cochineal, and tobacco from Mexico; and Chinese porcelain, gold, and stones from Manila via Acapulco. Tierra Firme: gold, silver, emeralds from Peru, and pearls from Venezuela. To Europe: copper and silver in ingots. Agricultural production: cow hides (generally raw), tobacco, cocoa beans, cochineal, indigo, precious hardwoods, coconuts (introduced by the Spanish), and many other small items, such as gourds to make exotic drinking vessels. Gold, emeralds, porcelain, silk, and pearls small but important part of cargo Back to Spain Both fleets to Havana (2-3 weeks) From Havana the ships would sail North and East to the Azores (1 month). Then on to Spain (20-30 days). Routes dictated by prevailing winds and currents. The Armada del Mar del Sur 1545, Potos silver mines, Peru. Yearly fleet from Lima's port of Callao, into Panama City, carried on mules to Portobello and shipped to Spain via Havana. Trip from Lima to Panama around 3 weeks. The trip back, however, up to 5 months, due to contrary winds. Manila Galleons (15651815) to Acapulco, Mexico Voyage lasted 6 months or more Return voyage most dangerous Fewer islands, contrary winds, and greed. The 1554 fleet
1537 Convoy system begins Merchant ships pay tax Few expected to return 1552, 54 vessels left Spain, 8 ships lost in convoy only 12 expected to return Veracruz devastated by a hurricane arrival, unloading, repairing, and reloading took longer than usual 1554, the San Esteban, Espiritu Santo, Santa Maria de Yciar and San Andres left Veracruz a few weeks before next Nueva Espaa fleet. 20 days later, fleet caught by hurricane Three vessels sunk off Padre Island San Andres reached Havana, and was scrapped Half of 300 died in the shipwrecks Small party of sailors south, in a boat The rest started walking all but one died Salvage expedition recovered about half of the cargo The Santa Maria de Yciar destroyed, 1940s by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mansfield Cut. The Espiritu Santo found and salvaged 1967 Change in antiquities law The San Esteban, Texas Antiquities Committee, 1973 Artifacts conserved at the University of Texas Espiritu Santo artifacts taken by the State of Texas Weapons, anchors, navigational equipment and rigging material . 2 million silver pesos, silver and gold bars Barrels of conchineal, resin and sugar Remains of cockroaches SAN ESTEBAN Only a 5 meter section of lower stern survives Tentative reconstruction of the hull 1st Spanish colonial wreck studied by archaeologists. 17th century Lower, faster Galleons Cast guns The 1622 fleet
8 ships of 28 vessels that left Havana on September 4, 1622 were lost. the Nuestra Seora de Atocha, the vice flagship (almiranta). Built in Havana, 550 tons burden, carried 20 bronze guns, a crew of 133 men, 82 soldiers, and 48 passengers. Copper, silver, some gold, indigo, tobacco, cochineal, and rosewood. Gold and jewels: contraband, 20% tax private property Little is known about the ship Mel Fisher discovered Atocha 1985 Romantic story 13 years and a series of bitter incidents. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wreck destroyed Artifacts No provenience Fund raising irregularities Environmental damage Counterfeit artifacts Three other vessels: the Santa Margarita, the Dry Tortugas Wreck the Nuestra Seora del Rosario. The first two found by treasure hunters, little is known. The third surveyed by Florida State University, but not much found The Concepcin a) large galleon b) built in Spain, 1620 c) 1640 attacked by pirates driven off by the ship's 40 guns. Nuestra Seora de la Pura y Limpia Concepcin, 1641 Already old, the Concepcin kept in New World for an entire year Shipworm damage Left for Spain late, Sept 1641. Nine days later, badly damaged during hurricane Tried to sail to Puerto Rico. Pilots sailed into a reef north of Hispaniola Crew built a number of rafts and sailed to Hispaniola. 532 onboard 194 survived Wreck could not be found by the Spanish. 45 years later it was salvaged William Phips financed by James II 1687, found the wreck with the help of a Spanish survivor 68,511 pounds of silver Some gold 10% to the king Phips sailed back but gave up after a few days. Sir John Narbourough, his partner died Phips, knighted, became Governor of Massachusetts High point of his life Failed as Gov Back to treasure hunting died of a fever. The Concepcin became known as the Silver Bank Scuba gear brought new treasure hunters 1952 Alexandre Korganoff 1955 Edwin Link 1968 Jacques Cousteau Burt Weber, 250,000 dollars, found 13 wrecks, none the Concepcin. 1978, Webber 2.5 million dollars log of the Henry & Magnetometer found the Concepcin deeply embedded in the coral reef Silver in bulk, coins, and jewelry most contraband Cartegena &Bogota mints 1621 instead of 1623 Little gold Ming porcelain from the Manila Galleons. Webber says he salvaged site completely Site still being salvaged The 1715 fleet Hurricane of 1715, 10 of 11 ships lost Grifon survived Sunk south of Cape Canaveral These were so badly damaged little salvaged Kip Wagner, 1950's Formed Real Eight Corp Salvage several shipwrecks Dragline Few wrecks ever identified Cabin Wreck, in front of a beach cabin, Gold Wreck, amount of gold recovered Wedge Wreck, shape of silver ingots Two wreck sites part of other fleets: Green Cabin Wreck = probably the San Martin, 1618 fleet Rio Mar Wreck = probably the Jesus Maria, a 1716 salvage vessel Provenience of artifacts not recorded Treasure was stolen or sold Wedge Wreck or Urca de Lima, now a park Guadalupe and Tolosa, 1724
Nuestra Seora de Guadalupe and the Conde de Tolosa, left Cadiz in July 1724 for Veracruz Cargo 400 tons of mercury One year's production of silver and gold August 24th, hurricane off Hispaniola. The Guadalupe, 1000 tons and 74 guns specially designed for mercury trade azogue Most crew and passengers survived (550 people). few survived the march and sailing to Santo Domingo Failed to salvage the 250 tons of mercury because of iron and wooden fittings stored above the cargo. The Nuestra Seora de Guadalupe, found 1976 by fisherman Salvage contracted to Tracy Bowden. Prop wash used Salvage finished c. 1 year (and olive jars were for sale in the Santo Domingo market) Large amount of artifacts recovered, including two bronze swivel guns, jewelry, coins, silver and pewter flatware, delftware, glassware, and daily life artifacts such as brass scissors handles, buttons, dice, religious medals, brass lanterns, an English clock, wine bottles, jugs, and olive jars. The Conde de Tolosa, 1500 tons, named after, illegitimate son of Louis XIV. Carried 150 tons of mercury. Carried about 70 guns and about 600 crew and passengers Only 40 people survived 7 spent 32 days in the top rigging before being rescued. Spanish failed to salvage mercury because of sharks. Packed in sheepskin bags, placed in barrels, 3 barrels to a box = 1.5 gallons, stacked 4 deep The Tolosa, found 1977 Treasure hunters allegedly retrieved the ship's bell, pewter chamber pots, glass and pottery objects, four pieces of gold jewelry with diamonds, about 1000 pearls, and a silver bracelet. The 1733 fleet
4 warships and 18 merchantmen 2nd day of voyage, sensing a hurricane, fleet turns back to Havana sunk around the Florida Keys. Extensively burned and salvaged by the Spanish More gold and silver recovered than sent Heavily pillaged from the 1930s to the 1970s Little profit Fleet consisted of Spanish, Dutch, English, and a Swedish built ship. Little to nothing learned about hull construction 1 published plan Too much damage to go back Figurine Wreck hundreds of small Mexican statuettes of fish, animals, and humans None survive 1968 the San Jos de las Animas salvaged by Tom Gurr with archaeologists Enormous number of artifacts Hullpreservation excellent Almost nothing known about this vessel Portuguese Crown incorporated the Brazil Company, 1649 Provide convoys merchants paid to use Also, insure royal 5th Monopolize imports and exports Exports: sugar, tobacco, cotton, cocao, gold, and ships Ships cost twice as much in Brazil Imports: finished goods, wine, flour, olive oil, and codfish San Diego, 1600
Two Dutch vessels sighted near the Philippines the Mauritius and the Eendracht Olivier van Noort, captain left Holland in 1598 Exploring Asian seas for business routes and pleasure (fight their Catholic enemies) The Governor, Antonio de Morga sent the San Diego and the San Bartolom 500 men, included a few Japanese mercenaries. After 2 years of exploration, loss of half the crew and 2 vessels, Dutch not looking for a fight. San Diego rammed the Mauritius, grappled it, and 30 Spanish soldiers boarded the Dutch vessel Demanded the Dutch to surrender Dutch barricaded in the fore and stern castles Tried to discuss the terms of surrender The San Diego sinking San Bartolom chasing the Eendracht Carried van Noort's papers. Antonio de Morga a bureaucrat, no combat experience 1st San Diego loaded too heavy could not fire guns Ordered his crew to ram the Mauritius at full speed, Caused a large leak When he heard, he hid behind the capstan Spanish called off the attack and abandoned both ships Dutch cut the grapnel cables and drifted away. The San Diego sank and about 350 soldiers drowned Found and salvaged in 1992 and 1993. No scholarly publication Nuestra Seora de la Concepcin, 1638 Sailing from Manila to Acapulco, hit a reef off Saipan, middle of the Pacific Ocean. 46 years later the Spanish recovered 35 of its 36 guns and part of its cargo. Salvaged by William Mathers in 1987 and 1988 Tried to apply archaeological standards Kept the artifact collection together Publish a detailed report Purchased by a Japanese developer and when he dies, it will be donated to the government of Guam. A unique situation. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2011 for the course ANTH 318 taught by Professor Oertling during the Spring '09 term at Texas A&M University-Galveston.
- Spring '09