4 - Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates Complex...

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Complex Complex  carbohydrates Polysaccharides made of many carbon rings Glycogen (polymer of glucose) is the storage form in animals Found in muscle and liver Starch (polymer of glucose) – is the storage form in plants – Found in roots and seeds Carbohydrates Cellulose  (polymer of glucose) is also a storage form in plant cell walls Indigestible for most animals due to orientation of bonds between glucoses (fiber)
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2. Lipids 2. Lipids All lipids contain large chains of nonpolar hydrocarbons (CH) 3.4 Lipids Lipids are diverse in structure and serve in a variety of functions Energy storage Waterproofing Membranes in cells Hormones **Molecules that do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic)**
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Fats and oils Fats and oils used for long-term energy storage Per gram Fats and oils possess twice as much energy as carbs 3.4 Lipids Fats Fats Usually animal origin Solid at room temperature Function also as insulation from heat loss and cushion for organs Oils Oils Usually plant origin Liquid at room temperature
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Structure of fats and oils is similar Fats and oils Formed by dehydration synthesis 3 fatty acids + glycerol triglyceride Lipids ?
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Phospholipids : form plasma membranes around all cells
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Phospholipids Construction 2 fatty acids + glycerol + a short polar functional group
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Steroids Structure is four fused carbon rings Ex cholesterol sex hormones Lipids
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3. Nucleic Acids 3. Nucleic Acids DNA RNA Function for storage of information! Subunit-nucleotide:
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4. Proteins 4. Proteins Subunits- amino acids Important for diverse functions in the body including Proteins
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Actin and Myosin
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Antibodies
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Polymerization of Proteins Amino acids are joined to form chains by dehydration synthesis An amino group reacts with a carboxyl group, and water is lost
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Long chains of amino acids are known as polypeptides or just proteins Amino Acid structure Amino Acid structure
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What do amino acids look like? Proteins Total of 20 amino acids Each with a different R group
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3D shape of proteins critical Denature = change in shape causes loss of function
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Proteins
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4 - Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates Complex...

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