16 - How Mutations Link to cancer Mutations in gene for...

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How Mutations Link to How Mutations Link to cancer cancer Mutations in gene for melanin=Albinos (not cancer) Mutations in a single amino acid in hemaglobin= Sickle cell anemia - (not cancer) Mutation in genes that control cell division= CANCER CANCER
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So what??? So what??? Mutations are errors in DNA that MAY or may NOT make a bad protein How do mutations actually LEAD to cancer??!?! If a mutation occurs in a If a mutation occurs in a gene gene that codes for a that codes for a protein protein that that REGULATES the cell cycle!! REGULATES the cell cycle!! The cycle will get out of control and cells will divide without stopping  ?? ??
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Ch 9 (9.1, 9.3-9.6) Old ch11 (sections 11.1-11.4 in 8th ed) Cell cycle Regulators of cell cycle Mitosis
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Loss of Normal Growth Control Cancer cell division Fourth or later mutation Third mutation Second mutation First mutation Uncontrolled growth Cell Suicide or Apoptosis Cell damage— no repair Normal cell division
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The cell cycle The cell cycle Chromosomes and cell cycle Cell Division Cell Division
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Cell cycle Each of two daughter cells gets an exact copy of parent cell’s genetic information DNA is loosely arranged in nucleus of non dividing cell
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The Eukaryotic Chromosome DNA must be condensed (coiled) to fit into nucleus for easy manipulation in cell division Each chromosome consists of a DNA double helix wound around spool proteins
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The Eukaryotic Chromosome Centromere (“middle body”) is region where chromosome can attach to a sister chromatid Two sister chromatids bound at their centromeres comprise a duplicated  chromosome Sister chromatids separate at their centromeres during mitosis
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Chromosomes Chromosomes Humans have 46 chromosomes that are in 23 pairs within a cell’s nucleus Pairs of chromosomes are called homologous homologous chromosomes chromosomes Every chromosome in cell has a “partner” or homologous chromosome Homologues contain the same kinds of genes and have the same size, shape Chromosomes and cell cycle
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A Karyotype A Karyotype Chromosomes and cell cycle
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Mitosis and Meiosis There are two types of cell division in eukaryotes Mitotic cell division  ( mitosis ) Meiotic cell  division  ( meiosis ) Diploid and haploid numbers “n” vs “2n” Do not read 9.8-9.10 (old book 11.6 or 11.7)!! 
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Chromosome structure in Chromosome structure in mitosis mitosis Chromosomes contain both DNA and proteins (collectively called chromatin chromatin
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16 - How Mutations Link to cancer Mutations in gene for...

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