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17 - Treatments of Cancer prevention(suppl material Cell...

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Structure of DNA Process of DNA replication Regulation of DNA replication=cell cycle Regulation of DNA replication=cell cycle DNA, genes, proteins= DNA, genes, proteins= Transcription/translation Transcription/translation Mutation of genes=abnormal cell growth Mutation of genes=abnormal cell growth Cell growth/division=Mitosis Stages of cancer- (suppl material) Stages of cancer- (suppl material) Treatments of Cancer Treatments of Cancer & prevention (suppl material) & prevention (suppl material)
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9 th ed 8 th ed Topic 11.1 9.2 DNA structure 11.2-11.4 9.3/9.4 DNA replication 11.5 9.5 DNA Mutations 12.1 10.1 DNA protein relationship 12.2 10.2 Transcription 12.3 10.3 Translation (RER, golgi, ribosimes) 12.4 (4.3) 10.4 (ch4) Effect of DNA mutation on proteins 9.4 11.1 eukaryotic cell cycle 9.3 11.2 chromosomes 9.5 11.3 mitosis 9.6 11.4 control of cell cycle Supplemental info on Cancer (in lecture and lab): tumor suppressor vs oncogenes Multistep process of cancer development Exam 2
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The “double, double, double” problem. double helix! diploid DNA replication diploid DNA replication double helix! 2^3? 2^3? 2X3? 2X3? 3^2? 2 chromatids 2n 2n John Merrill, 2007. Michigan State University
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b. a. c. neither ?
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Chromatin ! =relaxed from Chromatid =sister chromatids held together at centromere Chromosomes =condensed for for easy movement Homologous chromosomes= matched pair from mom and dad
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The human genome contains ~ 30,000 genes. A given cell “expresses” only a small number of genes. Here, expression of a gene means……. A. Its Transcribed B. Its Transcribed and translated C. The DNA for that gene is replicated D. DNA for that gene is mutated
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DNA Liver cell: requires proteins A, B, C DNA Eye cell: requires proteins D, E, F DNA Skin cell: requires proteins X, Y, Z Function of a cell is determined by the type of proteins that cell expresses……..
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Processes Involving Nucleic Processes Involving Nucleic Acids Acids Replication (DNA to DNA) Copying of DNA prior to mitosis Transcription Transcription (DNA to mRNA) Copying DNA to mRNA prior to protein synthesis Translation (mRNA to Protein) Converting mRNA sequence to amino acid sequence—making proteins Product is the same as the template — Copy machine Product is a version of the template in a new language — Foreign language translation Product contains the same information as the template, but in a new medium — Oprah transcripts
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The cell cycle The cell cycle 2 parts: 1. Interphase : G G 1 1  stage  stage S stage S stage G G 2 2  stage  stage 1. Cell division (mitosis and cytokinesis): Chromosomes and cell cycle
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Cancer forms as a direct result of : A. Too much DNA replication A. Any point mutation A. Mutations in genes for proteins that regulate the cell cycle A. Mutation in genes that cause the loss of proteins that start mitosis Mutation would need to result in INCREASED mitosis to =CANCER
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= tumor suppressor genes protein Tumor suppressor genes function in normal cells to turn off the cell cycle
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Proto-oncogenes function in normal cells to turn on the cell cycle
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Tumor suppressor genes Proteins such as p53, and RB that normally block the cell cycle are known as tumor suppressors .
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