ecology - Gregory Michel Genetics 343 Professor Simon...

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Gregory Michel Genetics 343 Professor Simon Analysis of Human DNA Abstract In the Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism experiment we amplified and analyzed a 440- nucleotide sequence of a non-coding region of their mitochondrial genome, called the Mitochondrial Control Region. we want to detail analyze base pairs of where it begins and where it ends from results 1% agarose gel copy photograph. Through PCR amplification we can then use gel electrophoresis to obtain results. The purpose of the alu insertion experiment is to show the correlation between the evolutions of the PV-92. The result for the alu insertion was calculated by using the chi square equation and the difference between observed and expected is borderline significant and the Mitochondrial DNA was sent for sequencing so there were no results for this experiment. Introduction Mitochondrial DNA: Every human cell has a "second" genome, found in the cell's energy-generating organelle, the mitochondrion. In fact, each mitochondrion has several copies of its own genome, and there are several hundred to several thousand mitochondria per cell. This means that the mitochondrial (mt) genome is highly amplified. Under good circumstances - working from fresh cell samples - mt DNA is the easiest human DNA to amplify by PCR. This experiment examines a 440- nucleotide sequence from the noncoding region of mt genome. Hand cycling is a realistic alternative to automated thermal cyclers, and the high yield of amplified product can be visualized in an agarose gel with a variety of stains. To achieve the amplification of the mitochondrial dna one uses DNA sequencing reactions which are very similar to the PCR experiment which is the replicating of the mitochondrial DNA by using a mixture that includes template DNA, free nucleotides, an enzyme usually a variant of Taq polymerase and a primer - a small piece of single-stranded DNA about 20-30 nt long that can hybridize to one strand of the template DNA. In this experiment we want to understand the sequencing and procedure use to sequence the DNA samples. We will better be able to understand the single nucleotide polymorphisms and the difference in each mitochondrial control regions by carefully looking at base pairs and graphs associated with sequencing. We will compare and contrast different organism such has the primate and Neanderthals. We will better understand the theory of the Romanovs. Once the results of the gels were done we sent those results to the DNA Learning Center for sequencing after the sequencing is done, we will be able to observe the specific sequencing. We are hypothesizing that all the bands that show up on the gel electrophoresis gel is
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Gregory Michel Genetics 343 Professor Simon Alu insertion Polymorphism: This experiment examines PV92, a human-specific Alu insertion on chromosome 16. The PV92 genetic system has only two alleles indicating the presence (+) or absence (-) of the Alu transposable element on each of the paired chromosomes. This results in three PV92 genotypes
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2011 for the course ECOLOGY 403 taught by Professor Beaton during the Spring '11 term at CUNY York.

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ecology - Gregory Michel Genetics 343 Professor Simon...

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