ANS18-10-L06-HIST-CARP

ANS18-10-L06-HIST-CARP - Traditional Aquaculture...

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Unformatted text preview: Traditional Aquaculture Prehistoric origins of both agriculture and aquaculture as crafts • Oxbow lakes – Neolithic hunter-gatherers in the Nile – seasonal collection of catfish from oxbow lakes • Egyptian bas-relief in one of the pharaoh tombs shows tilapia being removed from a pond – religious connotation? ANS - 18 ANS 1 Traditional Aquaculture Prehistoric origins of both terracultue and aquaculture as crafts • Neolithic hunter-gatherers in the Nile – seasonal • collection of catfish from oxbow lakes South America – Landscape fisheries in the Bolivian Amazon http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~cerickso/applied2.html click on - AN ARTIFICIAL LANDSCAPE SCALE FISHERY IN THE BOLIVIAN AMAZON • Egyptian bas-relief in one of the pharaoh’s tombs • Hawaiian fish ponds • Stew ponds in EuropeNS - 18 ANS A (2,500 B.C.) tilapia being removed from a pond religious connotation? 2 Traditional Aquaculture (cont.) Prehistoric origins of both agriculture and aquaculture as crafts • China – “Oracle bones” before invention of paper ~ 4000 years ago – Fan Lee 475 B.C. first aquaculture text – China continuous its tradition of freshwater aquaculture to this day ANS - 18 ANS 3 Aquatic Food Chains Traditional Aquaculture 10 – 20 microns 0.5 – 5 mm ANS - 18 ANS 4 Herbivorous Fish = Filter Feeders silver carp ANS - 18 ANS 5 Omnivorous fish - common carp ANS - 18 ANS 6 The History of Aquaculture ANS - 18 ANS 7 Carp Aquaculture Crustaceans 6% Seaweeds 23% Carp 30% Carp 61% of fish (39% animal aquaculture) Mollusk 22% Other fish 19% Total fish = 49% TOTAL AQUACULTURE ANS - 18 ANS 8 Koi • Koi (domestic carp) is the • most popular fish in Japan because of its gorgeous, magnificent, and colorful style. In Japanese culture, the Koi represents strength, courage and success in life. On Children's Day in May, Carp windsocks are flown from each home. This is the parents wishing success for their children's lives in the future. 9 ANS - 18 ANS Koi • Grand Champion Kohaku, 22nd & 24th All Japan Show, presently in service as a “stud” at Sakai Fish Farms in Hiroshima ANS - 18 ANS 10 Common carp = Cyprinus carpio • Temperature optimum; 20 - 33oC and will survive down to 4oC • While carp will tolerate low oxygen levels, optimum growth is achieved is > 3 ppm O2. Algal crashes and resulting complete oxygen depuration are a common cause of carp mortalities. ANS - 18 ANS 11 Carp reproduction • Collection of eggs • Natural spawning • Dubisch method - small (120 - 300 m2) shallow (30 - 60 cm deep) kept grasscovered and dry when not used. Temperature warms to 18 - 20oC; ponds are flooded 25 - 30 cm deep; spawners stocked, 2 - 3 females and 4 - 5 males; spawning occurs within 1 - 2 days. • Dry striping of spawners ANS - 18 ANS 12 1960’s Daylight/temp Pineal gland Pituitary gland Gonadotropin hormones Ovary or human chorionic gonadotrophin ANS - 18 ANS 13 Spawning maturation in carp • Hormone-treatment – Original method, females sutured; 3.5 - 4.0 mg dry pituitary/per kilogram of fish into the muscle on the back (2 X) – Presently hormone injections are used • 22 - 24 oC the ripening process is complete in 11 - 12 hours after the second treatment. ANS - 18 ANS 14 Fertilization • Fertilization - ~ 1 part sperm:100 parts eggs • Urea 0.3% plus sodium chloride 0.4% is used as a saline solution for multiple washes, 1 part solution:10 parts fertilized eggs, over a period of 1.5 hours to remove the "stickiness" from eggs. A final rinse uses tannin to complete the "desticking" process. ANS - 18 ANS 15 Larval rearing • Egg Incubation • Upwelling jars. 3 - 3.5 days at 24oC. Larval rearing Upwelling tanks (200 l) 3 - 4 days at 20 24oC; inflation of air bladder and swimming commences. ANS - 18 ANS 16 Fry rearing = small ponds ~ 0.1 ha • Predator removal – Quicklime – CaO + H2O Ca (OH) ph  > 11 – Bleach – Teaseed cake – saponin (hemolytic toxin) • Ponds fertilized - 2 weeks preparation combination organic and inorganic fert. nitrogen/phosphorus ratio = 3:1 to 6:1 • stocked at 200 - 400 larvae/m2; 30 days to fingerling size. ANS - 18 ANS 17 Intensification of carp monoculture • Natural production - 150 - 300 kg/ha/yr • Fertilization - 500 - 800 kg/ha/yr • Supplementary feeding - 1 - 4 mt/ha/yr (soaked grains) • Complete feeds - 5 - 10 mt/ha/yr • Complete feeds + aerators - 20 - 30 mt/ha/yr ANS - 18 ANS 18 POLYCULTURE – Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) ANS - 18 ANS 19 Chinese Carp production - 2008 20,593,000 mt (39% of animal aquaculture and 61 % of fish) Silver Carp 7% Grass Carp 9% Mollusks & Crustaceans 35% Common Carp 6% Other Fish 39% Indian Carps 5% Other Carps 7% Bighead Carp 5% ANS - 18 ANS 20 • Fry feed on plankton • Grass carp = grass “juice” carp change to vegetation at ~ 6 “ > 20oC grass carp feed continuously eating several times their body weight in plant material daily. Rapid growth; live for as long as 10 yrs. Meat quality preferred ANS - 18 ANS • • 21 Silver carp = phytoplankton ANS - 18 ANS 22 Bighead carp feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton and/or pellets; fourth most important carp species ANS - 18 ANS 23 Black carp feeds on molluscs ANS - 18 ANS 24 Grass carp model - ~ 9000 kg/ha Species Grass carp Silver carp Bighead carp Common carp Tilapia Stocking # 7,500 6,700 1,800 3,700 3,000 ANS - 18 ANS Survival Net yield % (kg/ha) ~ 90* 5,000 ~ 90* ~ 90 ~ 90 ~ 80 2,000 700 1,000 400 25 Rice-fish aquaculture • Advantages – • – rice production improved – additional source of protein and/or revenue Disadvantages – – Not useful with high-yielding, short stem rice varieties calling for thin water sheets – Not useful with rice multiple cropping; fish growth limited – Need to provide refuges during rice field drainage – Limits use of common insecticides and herbicides – fish production food limited ANS - 18 ANS 26 Integrated fish farming Integration with animal husbandry Terraculture species 1 egg-laying hen/yr 1 duck/yr 1 goose 1 fattening pig (0 – 8 months old) 1 milk cow ANS - 18 ANS Fish/yr 2 kg 3 kg 4 kg 40 kg 450 kg 27 ANS - 18 ANS 28 Integrated fish farming Multi-level integration • Pig waste vegetables vegetable wastes • fish Fish-sericulture Pond silt mulberry trees silkworm production silkworm pupae fish • Cow waste mushroom earthworm fish • “You name it” ANS - 18 ANS 29 ...
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