ANS18-10-L07-HIST-CONT

ANS18-10-L07-HIST-CONT - Development of the science of...

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Unformatted text preview: Development of the science of aquaculture Mother Necessity had three children: Invention, Terraculture and Aquaculture ANS - 18 ANS 1 AGRICULTURE TERRACULTURE Traditional AQUACULTURE Traditional Industrial Revolution 1760 - 1850 Science 1960 ANS - 18 ANS Science 2 Development of “Terraculture” The necessity for modern agriculture • 1760 – The Industrial Revolution • Started with steam pumps in the coal mines of England and ended up by the turn of the century completely changing the world. • Labor force moves to urban industrial centers • Mechanization allows England to compete with inexpensive colonial labor. • The sciences flower; first in the fields of engineering, chemistry and then followed by agriculture and biology ANS - 18 ANS 3 The Agriculture Revolution – late 1700’s • In response to farm labor shortages, farming must become more efficient with innovations: – Technological - steel plows, seed drills, etc. – Biological • use of clover for land regeneration • meat breeds of sheep developed – Social - redistribution - the enclosure movement allows for mechanization • Professional agriculturalists - a general • "agromania" - start of numerous agricultural societies along with publication of "how to" books and society journals Thus the Industrial Revolution and the movement of labor to the cities was also the beginning of AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE ANS - 18 ANS 4 Jean Baptiste Lamarck 1809 … animals living in the water, especially the sea waters, are protected from the destruction of their species by man. Their multiplications is so rapid and their means of evading pursuit or traps are so great that there is no likelihood of his being able to destroy the entire species of any of these animals. ANS - 18 ANS 5 World War II Industrialized Fishing LORAN – position accurate to .25 nautical miles RADAR – penetrate darkness and fog SONAR – penetrate beneath the waves ANS - 18 ANS 6 National Sea Grant College and Program Act of 1966 … aquaculture, as with agriculture on land, and the gainful use of marine resources can substantially benefit the United States, and ultimately the people of the world, by providing greater economic opportunities, including expanded employment and commerce; the enjoyment and use of our marine resources; new sources of food; and new means for the development of marine resources ANS - 18 ANS 7 Ryther, J. H. Photosynthesis and Fish Production Science 1969 ANS - 18 ANS 8 Ryther (1969) concluded • ~ 240 million tons of fish produced/yr • Man must leave enough to sustain fisheries • Thus, unlikely that the sustained fish yield is appreciably greater than 100 million tons • 1967 harvest = 60 million tons; 8 % increase/yr; therefore limit will be reached in a decade ANS - 18 ANS 9 Global Fisheries from National Geographic Oct. 2010 Results Political – 1982; 200 mile EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zones) Institutional -1969; World Mariculture Society 1985 – WMS World Aquaculture Society Literature – 1972 1st issue Aquaculture International - 1988 F.A.O. statistics on aquaculture Continuing commercial over-harvest Roughly two-thirds of the world’s major stocks are now fished at or beyond their capacity, and another 10 percent have been harvested so heavily that populations will take years to recover. ANS - 18 ANS 11 Fisheries collapse ANS - 18 ANS 12 Fisheries restoration ANS - 18 ANS 13 Aquaculture Aquaculture Traditional vs Modern • 1960 – 2 million metric tonnes – ~ 2,000 years • 2008 – 63 million metric tonnes –~ 50 years ANS - 18 14 South-eastern Cambodia – rice/fish culture • Better water prod. (BW) = 604 kg/yr fish • Poorer water prod. (PW) = 158 kg/yr fish However, consumption was the same = 37 kg/person and amount of fish purchased was also the same • PW sold = 34 kg/year; BW sold = 356 kg/year IAD 202N IAD 15 Rapid Growth of Aquaculture? ANS - 18 ANS 16 FAO: The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture - 2008 present per capita supply of 16.7 kg of “fish” for food world population growth of ~ 78 million/year The Goal (million metric tonnes) 1988 2008 2028 Capture 89 91 91 Aquacult 16 68 (+ 2.6/yr) 94 (+ 1.3/yr) Will aquaculture continue to grow as long as demand grows? Constraints • Average rate of growth rate is slowing 11.8 %/yr 1985 – 94; 7.1%/yr 1995 – 04 • Limits on land and/or water Conklin’s Golden Rule “No water – No aquaculture” • Established industries – stagnation • Developing industries – lack of technology US Top 10 shrimp canned tuna salmon pollock catfish* cod clams crabs flatfish tilapia 2001 3.4 2.9 2.0 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 US Top 10 shrimp canned tuna salmon pollock tilapia catfish* crabs cod clams Pangasius 2009 4.1 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 Basa (Pangasius sp.) • Tropical; 23°C - 28°C • Freshwater (slightly catadromous) SAFEWAY SAFEWAY ...
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