ANS18-10-L20-SHRIMP-INTRO-HATCHERY

ANS18-10-L20-SHRIMP- - ANS – 18 Shrimp Culture ANS 1 52 of the global production of shrimp Global Shrimp Production Capture& Culture 7,000,000

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Unformatted text preview: ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 1 52% of the global production of shrimp Global Shrimp Production - Capture & Culture 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 Tonnes 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 76 ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS Aquaculture = 3,339,000 mt Culture Capture 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 Year 2 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 Species name Fenneropenaeus chinensis Fenneropenaeus merguiensis Litopenaeus stylirostris Common name Chinese white shrimp Banana prawn Western blue shrimp Former species name P. chinensis or orientalis P. merguiensis P. stylirostris Litopenaeus Western white- P. vannamei vannamei legged shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus Japanese kuruma prawn P. japonicus Penaeus monodon ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS Giant tiger shrimp No name change 3 Marine Shrimp Aquaculture Production Yr Global (mt) 70,000 580,000 880,000 920,000 1,010,000 1,140,000 1,290,000 2,476,000 3,118,000 3,399,000 P. monodon 20,000 200,000 560,000 540,000 510,000 620,000 520,000 722,000 637,000 722,000 % 30 35 65 60 50 54 40 29 20 21 P. vannamei 8,000 80,000 140,000 145,000 200,000 280,000 431,000 1,386,000 2,100,000 2,259,000 % 10 15 15 16 20 25 33 56 67 66 % Other 60 50 20 25 30 21 27 15 13 13 80 88 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 Total Marine Shrimp Aquaculture = ~ 3,399,000 mt ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 4 ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 5 Giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon • Named for large size and • banded tail Captive breeding is very difficult and hatchery survivals are low (20 to 30%) Only produced in Asia Maximum length of 363 mm (> 14 inches). Black tigers tolerates a wide range of salinities – but shortages of wild broodstock often exist 6 • • • ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, western white-legged shrimp • Stocked at small sizes and has a uniform growth rate • Maximum size 230 mm (~ 9 inches); ~ 26 grams. • Breeds in captivity better than P. monodon. • Hatchery survivals are high, ranging from 50 to 60%. • Throughout Latin America, there are captive stocks of P. vannamei broodstock, some of them pathogen-free and some of them resistant to known pathogens. • Recently introduced to Asia ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 7 Whiteleg Shrimp Country China Thailand Indonesia Ecuador Mexico Brazil Viet Nam Others Total ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS Giant Tiger Prawn % Country Tonnes % 325,000 45 135,000 19 76,000 11 61,000 8 48,000 7 45,000 6 13,000 2 13,000 2 722,000 8 Tonnes 1,063,000 47 Viet Nam 499,000 22 Indonesia 209,000 9 India 150,000 6 China 130,000 6 Myanmar 65,000 3 Philippines 39,000 2 Malaysia 113,000 5 Others 2,259,000 Total ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 9 Reproduction Reproductive types – Closed thelyca – P. monodon and P. japonicus – Open thelycum – P. vannamei Reproductive strategies • Collection of gravid females • Ovarian maturation and spawning – typically done with unilateral eyestalk ablation – Reduced viability of larvae with time • Ideally, management of a breeding population in ponds or large tanks (P. vannamei) ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 10 Seed collecting Shrimp Sourcing ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 11 Unilateral eyestalk ablation ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 12 Shrimp maturation Maturing gonads ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 13 Reminder: mating and egg fertilization in crustaceans do not necessarily occur at the same time ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 14 Shrimp can also be artificially mated after electo-ejaculation of the male ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 15 Hatchery management • Community tank method – “Green water” – Small hatcheries – specialized “mom and pop” operations; 20 – 30% survival – Specific feeds for each larval stage – 70 – 90% survival – PL cost $ 4 – 20/thousand 16 • Galveston method – ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 11-day hatchery cycle • N = nauplius; • • survives on yolk Z = zoea; feeds on algal cells M = mysis; feeds on zooplankton (typically brine shrimp nauplii) PL = post larvae; feeds on brine shrimp and prepared feeds 17 • ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS Zoea production = algae Mysis production = brine shrimp nauplii Artemia ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 18 Artemia = magic sea monkeys ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 19 Great Salt Lake – U.S. brine shrimp fishery ~ 10 mm. in length ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 20 Artemia cyst harvesting 32 companies 2006 – 07 season 17 million pounds of cysts Total Harvest (lbs) 30,000,000 25,000,000 20,000,000 Pounds 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0 98 6 98 9 99 2 99 5 99 8 00 1 00 4 20 03 –2 19 85 –1 19 88 –1 19 91 –1 19 94 –1 19 97 –1 20 00 –2 ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 20 06 –2 21 00 7 (~ 4 months starting around December) until cyst levels fall ≤ 21/liter Artemia cyst harvesting ~ 25% of harvested biomass is suitable for commercial cysts ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 22 Artemia cyst processing • Eggs are washed, dried and, • • • ultimately vacuum-packed. A grade (> 90% hatch) = 20 % of harvest; $ ~ 25.00/lb B grade (70 – 85% hatch) = $ 3.00/lb C grade (< 70% hatch) returned to the lake ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 23 Commercial Artemia cysts 70 million dollar industry in Utah ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 24 Brine shrimp hatching Artemia nauplii ~ 450 microns in length ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 25 Brine Shrimp Hatching Methods • Sea water or a salt solution; maximum hatching efficiency occurs as 25 ppt (28 ppt for decapsulated cysts) buffered with 2 g NaHCO3 per liter of hatching medium (pH optimum 8.0 9.0) Temperature 25 - 30 oC Oxygen > 2mg/l (7 liters of air/min for 20 liter hatching container) Strong illumination - 1000 lux (20 cm from a 60W fluorescent light tubes) Air stopped; floatation of cysts shells; concentration of nauplii with light at the bottom 26 • • • • ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS Hatchery management • Community tank method – Small hatcheries – specialized “mom and pop” operations, Thailand; 20 – 30% survival – Nauplius – no feed required; sell for $0.50 $2.00/thousand – Zoea – feeds on algae – Mysis – feeds on Artemia (zooplankton) – Postlarva – P.L.s, feeds on Artemia (zooplankton) formulated feeds; sell for $ 4.00/thousand • Galveston method – large hatcheries; 70 – 90% survival P.L.s - $ 20/thousand; production costs $ 2.00 – 7.00/thousand, when their gills become branched they can be moved to the farm, from hatching to P.L. it takes 11 days. ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS 27 11-day hatchery cycle • N = nauplius; • • survives on yolk Z = zoea; feeds on algal cells M = mysis; feeds on zooplankton (typically brine shrimp nauplii) PL = post larvae; feeds on brine shrimp and prepared feeds 28 • ANS – 18; Shrimp Culture ANS ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course ANS 18 taught by Professor Mchenry during the Spring '11 term at UC Davis.

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