ANS18-10-L23-FLATFISH

ANS18-10-L23-FLATFISH - Gone to the store yet? Market...

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Unformatted text preview: Gone to the store yet? Market Survey Assignment due MONDAY, NOVEMBER 29th IN LECTURE ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 1 Dr. Rosamond Naylor, Prof. En. Sci. & Dir. Program on Food Security & the Environment., Stanford University ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 2 Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. 2000. RL Naylor, RJ Goldburg, JH Primavera, N Kautsky, MCM Beveridge, J Clay, C Folke, J Lubchenco, H Mooney & M Troell Nature 405:1017-1024. “Aquaculture's potential contribution to fish supplies is severely diminished …” ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 3 Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. 2009 RL Naylor, RW. Hardy, DP Bureau, A Chiu, M Elliott, AP Farrell, I Forster, DM Gatlin, RJ Goldburg, K Hua, & PD Nichols. PNAS 106:15103-15110. [by the year 2015] “… a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it”. ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 4 Lots of Fish in the Sea ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 5 Fish – Marine versus Freshwater Marine Fished Farmed ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS Freshwater 9,000,000 67,000,000 3,000,000 29,000,000 6 Marine Fish AQUACULTURE BOTTLENECK = LARVICULTURE e.g. Trout fry = 15 – 20 mm long Marine fish larvae = 2 – 4 mm Require HUFA in the diet ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 7 Rotifer – Brachionus sp. (s-strain) • • • • • 120 μ Euryhaline Parthenogenetic Tolerant of high densities Slow swimmers ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 8 Fatty acids ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 9 Unsaturated fatty acids Oleic acid 18:1 n-6 Linoleic acid = EFA 18:2 n-6 Linolenic acid = EFA 18:3 n-3 FA destaturase ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS ω - end 10 Essential fatty acids “HUFA’s” ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 11 Enrichment Supplements, generally rich in essential fatty acids, are often used to enhance the nutritional value of zooplankton. Of particular importance are unique highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) with the omega-3 configuration. Typically, the brine shrimp nauplii and rotifers are allowed to feed for 12 hours or until the guts are full; then they are feed to the target aquaculture species. ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 12 The enrichment process can also be used to deliver other nutrients, antibiotics, etc. ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 13 Selco Products • Self Emulsified Lipid Concentrate (SELCO) was developed by Artemia Systems in Belgium and has been the benchmark enrichment formula to the aquaculture industry. • This Artemia or rotifer enrichment formula is rich in Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFA's) and is super concentrated. Just 10 drops per liter or quart of water is sufficient for enriching thousands of Artemia nauplii and adults as well as rotifers. ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 14 Flatfish Culture ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 15 Development of California Halibut Paralichthys californicus Culture ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 16 http://wwwflag.wr.usgs.gov/USGSFlag/Data/maps/California.gif ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 17 CALIFORNIA HALIBUT HATCHERY PROJECT (Redondo Beach, CA) •Two brood-stock tanks and one acclimatization tank •37 m3 tank = 4 ♀ plus 8 ♂ •150 m3 tank = 5 ♀ plus 10 ♂ •Average eggs/year ~40 x 106 •Average egg viability = 50% •Natural spawning; March-July ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 18 • California halibut eggs – ~ 0.7 mm – Hatch ~ 3 days after fertilization – Neutrally buoyant ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 19 Recirculation conical tank Jun 01 Jul 01 trials trials Arrival age (days) Total larvae Weaning age (days) Total juveniles ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS Static trough; semi-green water Jun 02 trials 0 14 K 75 1850 Jul 03 trials 0 16 K 45 9600 20 3 or 4 18 K 100 123 2 12 K 150 444 California halibut larviculture Algae - Nannochloropsis micropellet 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 days ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 21 Larval development ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 22 Pre-metamorphic larvae eating brine shrimp Metamorphosed larvae weaned to prepared food ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 23 JUVENILE HALIBUT ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 24 System volume: 3.5 m3 Max flow rate 60 l/min Make up ~ 1 to 5%/day Raceways Coarse Filter 50 to 250 m Constant Head tank Conical tanks Aeration Chiller Submerged Biofilter unit Cart. Filter 20 m UV ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS Reservoir 25 • Raceways with screened standpipes (200 m, 1 ,and 3 mm) • Water flows based on stage development (1, 3, and 6 l/min) ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 26 CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF AN INTEGRATED PILOT PLANT SYSTEM • HIGH FISH DENSITY • LOW PROTEIN FEED • LOW ENERGY INPUT • MINIMAL WATER EX. ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 27 Growout • Temp = 18 to 23 oC • Salinity = 28 to 32 g/L • TAN = .03 to .36 mg/L • Dissolved O2 > 5 mg/L • Mortality < 2%/month ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 28 Growth/Sex Ratio • Growth rate declined as fish reached ~ 300 grams • All males • Micro-habitat ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 29 Sexually Dimorphic Growth •Females attain 200300% larger size than males Southern flounder 1000 Mean wt. (g) 800 600 400 200 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Months (post stocking) 30 •Dimorphism appears at onset of sexual maturity (about 1 year) Female Male •Optimal grow out would eliminate slowergrowing males and focus on all-females ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination 50 40 % Female 30 ** 20 Sex determination occurs from 45-65 mm TL 10 *** 18 23 28 0 ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS Water Temperature (ºC) Luckenbach et al. 2003 31 Commercialization pellet nauplii rotifer ? ? ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS Paralichthys californicus 32 Flatfish Production ANS – 18; Marine Fish Culture ANS 33 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course ANS 18 taught by Professor Mchenry during the Spring '11 term at UC Davis.

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