04-ComplexCHO

04-ComplexCHO - 1 Di& Complex...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Di- & Complex Carbohydrates (Disaccharides & Polysaccharides) Simple Sugars ! History and culture ! Taste ! Reactions that lead to aromas and colors ! Energy 4 Kcalories/gram or 4 Calories/gram ! Food Preservative Simple Sugars ! Glucose (dextrose, grape sugar, blood sugar) ! Fructose (levulose, fruit sugar) ! Sucrose ! Honey ! Corn Syrup ! High Fructose Corn Syrup ! Artificial Sweeteners Maltose (disaccharide) ! Glucose-glucose ! Other common names: malt sugar ! Produced by hydrolysis of starch ! energy source in fermentations ! Not very sweet 2 Lactose ! A disaccharide from mammalian milks ! Composed of glucose & galactose ! Not very sweet Dairy History ! Derivation of common words in dairying ! Latin lac = milk ! Led to lactation, lactose ! !"#" = gala = milk ! Led to galaxis to galaxy to galactose 2.17m Milk – Consumption ! Only humans: ! Consume milk of other species ! Consume milk after weaning ! Northern Europeans are the primary group that: ! Consumes milk as adults ! Many other adult humans: ! become lactose intolerant ! decrease and lose production of LACTASE and cannot digest lactose. LACTOSE INTOLERANCE ! Most of the world’s adults cannot effectively digest lactose 3 LACTOSE INTOLERANCE ! Most of the world ’s adults cannot effectively digest lactose ! McGee: “Ethnic chauvinism” LACTOSE INTOLERANCE — Getting around the problem… ! Use of lactase enzymes ! Directly in processing ! Naturally with fermented dairy products ! Dietary supplements ! (“Lact-Aid”) For every PhD there is an equal & opposite PhD… ! Other things in dairy might cause digestion discomfort (such as proteins) ! However, regardless of what the causal agents, the results can sometimes be uncomfortable. 1.53 107 Dairy products 32 Candies 36 Canned food 43 Bakery 53 Food additives 70 Seasonings 79 Convenient food 136 Soft drinks 161 Processed grain products 163 Processed aquatic products 238 Edible oil 254 Alcoholic beverages 266 Meat Products Output in 2006(billion) Categories Current status: Growth of China’s food processing industry and improvement in industrial structure 4 Oligosaccharides ! Raffinose and stachyose found in legumes and other plants ! consist of sucrose attached to a galactose unit ! Not hydrolyzed in vivo ! fermented by microorganisms in GI tract ! produce undesirable symptoms ! Oligosaccharides in milk called “ bifidus factor ” Carbohydrate - Examples ! Sugars ! Starches & Complex Carbohydrates Seeds as Foods • Plant’s embryonic material with food • 10,000 years ago, the beginning of Agriculture • Grains & legumes account for more than 2/3 of dietary protein in the average diet Seeds • Grains –cereals are all plants from the grass family. They produce many tiny dry fruits....
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course FST 010 taught by Professor Garcia during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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04-ComplexCHO - 1 Di& Complex...

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