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10-PlantFoods - Seeds as Foods Cereals Legumes Nuts Plant...

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1 Plant Foods Seeds as Foods Cereals Legumes Nuts ! DEFINITIONS ! HISTORY OF SOME FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ! SENSORY ATRIBUTES ! COMPOSITION – NUTRITIVE VALUE ! RIPENING ! STORAGE AND PRESERVATION ! CHANGES DURING COOKING ! HEALTH ASPECTS OF PLANT FOODS ! CONSUMER TRENDS AND RECOMENDATIONS ! ORGANIC AGRICULTURE
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2 Animals & fungi are heterotrophic: (“other”- nourished) Plants are autotrophic: " SELF-NOURISHED PHOTOSYNTHESIS Plants have chlorophyll (green pigment found in chloroplasts) which make photosynthesis possible. CO 2 + H 2 0 + light ! sugar + 0 2 Fruit = derived from the ovary; surrounds the seeds Vegetable = other parts of the plant •stem (asparagus, celery) •roots (beets, carrot, radish) •leaves (lettuce, spinach) •flowers (broccoli, artichoke) FRUIT DEFINITIONS Oxford Dictionary: Edible product of plant or tree, consisting of seed and its envelope, especially the latter juicy or pulpy.” Consumer: “Plant products with aromatic flavors, which are either naturally sweet or normally sweetened before eating.” Willis et al. (1981) Compare to Botanical: “A plant that contains one or more matured ovaries.”
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3 Fig Peduncle Strawberry Receptacle Mangosteen Aril Pomegranate seed Outer layer Of the testa Peach Mesocarp Orange Endodermal Intralocular tissue Grapes Pericarp Tomato Placental intralocular tissue Septum Pineapple Peduncle Pedicel Cashew apple FRUITS Rose Family Pome (apples, pears) Stone/ Drupes (cherry, plum, peach) Berries (black, rasp, strawberries) Squash Family (melons) Citrus (lemon, grapefruit, orange) Miscellaneous (banana, fig, date, kiwi, pineapple) FRUIT FAMILIES Are derived from various parts of plants stem (asparagus, celery) roots (beets, carrot, radish) leaves (lettuce, spinach) flowers (broccoli, artichoke) VEGETABLES VEGETABLES
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4 Squash Family (cucumber, pumpkin, squash) Nightshade Family (eggplant, pepper, tomato) = Solanaceas Others (avocado, olive) HISTORY OF SOME FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PREHISTORY AND EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Many of the fruits and vegetables have grown in the wild for thousands of years. About 11,000 years ago people began to farm the plants (domestication of vegetal species) . It started with seeds, legumes and tubers which are rich source of energy and protein and can be grown and stored in large quantities. After that, farmers experimented and grew new kinds of the wild fruits and vegetables. Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia. The region is often considered the cradle of civilization, saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations, and is the birthplace of agriculture, writing and the wheel. The term "Fertile Crescent" was coined by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt , first published in 1906
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5 Vavilov Centers. http://interactive.usask.ca/Ski/agriculture/crops/index.html Some fruits: Pineapples are native to Brazil. Christopher Columbus took them to Spain from South America in the late 1400s.
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