NPB+112+11++learning+_+memory+lecture+notes - OUTLINE:...

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1 OUTLINE: LEARNING AND MEMORY (Chs. 8, 31) 2/24-3/1/11 I. Introduction A. Declarative vs. reflexive B. Short vs. long-term memory II. Neural basis A. Hippocampus and limbic system B. Long-term potentiation (LTP) C. Long-term depression (LTD) I. Types of Memory A. Learning: acquisition of knowledge. Memory: retention of knowledge. B. Types of memory: Fig. 31.1 1. " Declarative " (events, words, faces etc.): can be acquired first time 2. Procedural (reflexive) learning: requires repetition. a. non-associative: (1) habituation = decreased response to repeated stimulus (2) sensitization = increased response after strong stimulus b. Associative: pair unconditioned stimulus such as food (to elicit salivation) with conditioned stimulus (bell); eventually associate bell only with salivation. c. taste aversion: get sick after eating something, will avoid that taste; can last years C. Short- vs. long-term memory (Fig. 31.2): 1. Short-term memory: 7-11 singular facts (e.g. telephone number) remembered for a few minutes, usually must rehearse 2. "Working" memory: general form of short-term, can remember several different things at once (phone number, recent sounds); sense of “present” a. different working memories may be stored at different sites (frontal lobes) b. not necessarily conscious of all items in working memory at a given time. 3. long-term memory: things or events remembered for years. D. Long-term memory 1. Penfield: electrical stimulation of temporal lobe can evoke vivid distant memories, suggests long-term memory is stored in cerebral cortex. 2. Long-term memory still intact after total disruption of brain activity (electroshock; hypothermia, near-death): rules out idea that constant brain activity is necessary to hold memory. 3. Long-term memory probably requires permanent physical change in brain.
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2 4. Probably different mechanisms for short- vs. long-term memory. E. Amnesia: Loss of memories around time of head injury 1. before accident = retrograde 2. after accident = anterograde. 3. Amnesia shrinks over time so "islands" of amnesia remain. 4. Old memories are intact. 5. Recent memories not yet consolidated into long-term memory are more easily lost. F. Case study of patient H.M. with bilateral damage to hippocampus (Box 31C, p. 801) who retained long-term memories, but was incapable of learning anything new after damage. 1. severe anterograde amnesia for declarative memories; unable to consolidate new events into long-term memory. 2. Short-term memory intact if continually rehearsed 3. Procedural memory intact (could learn & retain manual skills) G . SUMMARY: 1. Long-term memories physically stored at different sites in cortex. 2. Mechanisms of short- vs. long-term memory are different. 3.
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NPB+112+11++learning+_+memory+lecture+notes - OUTLINE:...

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