Topic_5_memory - CO105 Communication II CO105 Lesson 5...

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Unformatted text preview: CO105 Communication II CO105 Lesson 5 Lesson Memory Memory Introduction to Memory Introduction Group discussion: How do we remember things and How how to improve our memory? how Recency curve Recency • shows the percentage of the words shows correctly recalled, by their position on the list (e.g. first, second, etc.). Serial position effect Serial • read and recite a list of words, read • tend to remember the first and the last tend words more often than remember the words in the middle of the list. • Why? Serial position effect (cont.) Serial • first words that I read because those first words were entered into long-term memory. • the later words found it harder to fit into the long-term memory, because the earlier words were interfering with their storage. • the words that I read last are remembered the well because those words are still being stored in short-term memory. Modal model Modal • • • Multi-part system of memory. Multi-part Sensory register receives information Sensory Attention acts as a filter to determine Attention which information in the register is important enough to be considered in short-term memory. • Some information, if it needs to be held Some onto for later use, is rehearsed in shortonto term memory. term Modal model (cont.) Modal • Rehearsal holds an item and it increases Rehearsal the chances that the item will get into longthe term memory. term • Long-term memory is a web-like network Long-term of information. of • We can enter items and take them out Association network Association • Based on how we connect things in our Based minds. • For example, my grandmother's house For always smelled like cookies, so I will always associate that smell with her. • We remember things and search for items We in memory by using associations to call up other memories. Short-Term Memory Short-Term • Limited capacity, quick loss of information • In a test of capacity, such as a digit span In task, it can hold only approximately seven (five to nine) items. Short-Term Memory (cont.) Short-Term • Read these numbers out loud at a rate of Read about one per second: • 6, 3, 9, 7, 4, 6, 2, 3, 9, 4. 6, Short-Term Memory (cont.) Short-Term • Write down the number with Write sequence sequence Short-Term Memory (cont.) Short-Term • 6, 3, 9, 7, 4, 6, 2, 3, 9, 4. 6, Short-Term Memory (cont.) Short-Term • Read these numbers out loud at a rate of Read about one per second: • 4, 2, 5, 8, 3, 7, 1, 4, 9, 3. 4, Short-Term Memory (cont.) Short-Term • Write down the number with Write sequence sequence Decay and interference Decay • Decay mean that memories simply fade Decay away over time. • If you read the numbers faster, at a rate of If four per second instead of one per second, you should be able to remember more of them Decay and interference (Cont.) Decay • Interference, meaning that other Interference, information pushes memories out of the short-term store. • There are two types of interference: There proactive and retroactive. proactive Decay and interference (Cont.) Decay • Retroactive interference Retroactive – New information pushes old items out of New memory through retroactive interference; – This type of interference works backward This ("retro"), ruining memory for items entered earlier. Decay and interference (Cont.) Decay • Proactive interference Proactive – Old items clogging up short-term memory Old prevent the accurate entry of new information through proactive interference; – This type of interference works forward This ("pro"), straining memory for items entered later. Baddeley's model for working memory Baddeley's • Short-term memory worked as a very Short-term dynamic place called working memory • Baddeley's model for working memory Baddeley's divides it into two parts: – the visuo-spatial sketch pad, the – the phonological loop. the Baddeley's model for working memory (cont.) (cont.) Visuo-spatial sketch pad • What people refer to as the "mind's eye." What It controls visual imagery • Central executive controls awareness of Central the information in working memory Baddeley's model for working memory (cont.) (cont.) • For example, picture a pink elephant. For • Visuo-spatial sketch pad created the image of Visuo-spatial the elephant, the • Central executive brought it into your Central consciousness so that you could be aware of the elephant and see a pink elephant in my mind; • Central executive directs our awareness toward Central working memory's content working • But have little or no control over it, we But automatically experience whatever is presented to us. Baddeley's model for working memory (cont.) (cont.) Phonological loop • Used to rehearse verbal information to keep it in Used the short-term memory. • two parts: an inner ear and an inner voice two • Repeat the numbers "1, 2, 3" to yourself several Repeat times, without saying them out loud. You can hear the numbers being spoken, although you are not making any sound. Your inner voice is "saying" the numbers, and your inner ear is hearing them. Baddeley's model for working memory (cont.) (cont.) • For example, call Pizza, my phonological loop For repeats "2555-6475…" As soon as I finish dialing the number, I stop rehearsing it, and it leaves my short term memory. • If when I am rehearsing the phone number, If someone asks me a question. I stop rehearsing to answer it. Then, I may forget the number; to • The question caused interference to my shortThe term memory pushing the phone number out. Baddeley's model for working memory (cont.) (cont.) • One cognitive experiment studied the One interference of different types of background noise on subjects' digit span. • Hearing unrelated sound such as "do" and "fa" Hearing caused some interference, lowering subjects' digit span. • Hearing another person reciting numbers caused Hearing the most interference, lowering the digit span severely, and • This evidence supports the theory that rehearsal This in short-term memory is controlled by a phonological loop, since distracting information that sounds similar to the rehearsed items can interfere with short-term memory for those items. Long-Term Memory Long-Term • Information is stored for later retrieval Information • Reconstruction of information, not exact copy • Complex network of associations to other Complex memories, thoughts, and feelings, similar to a spider's web. • Individual memories are not filed away into Individual separate boxes, but rather are connected to other memories by a network of associations. • Activating one memory can, by association, Activating can call up another related memory. can Encoding Encoding • Encoding is the process of entering Encoding information into long-term memory. information • Measure the efficiency of encoding a Measure particular item by how easy it is to retrieve that item from memory later. that • One way that people try to encode One information is through rehearsal. Simply studying an item repeatedly can improve memory Encoding (cont.) Encoding Spacing Effect Spacing • Spacing out such rehearsal over time can Spacing also help encoding efficiency. • If I only repeat fifty times today, I may not If remember it in a week. • But if I repeat it ten times a day for five But days, I will be able to recite much more easily later. Encoding (cont.) Encoding • There are two principal types of encoding: There deep and shallow. • Shallow encoding focuses on the Shallow superficial aspects of the item, such as the number of vowels or the sound of the words. Rehearsal simply repeating the words over and over, is a form of shallow encoding. Encoding (cont.) Encoding • Deep encoding focuses on drawing connections Deep between that item and other information already in memory. • Takes more effort but improves encoding Takes efficiency. • For example, if I wanted to encode a new For vocabulary word deeply, I might try to make a sentence using the word or think about what similar words I already know. • By encoding an item deeply in long-term memory, By we create more connections between it and other items in memory. Increased number of associations make it more likely that we can find it by tracing a path through memory. Retrieval Retrieval • Retrieval is the process of digging Retrieval information out of memory. • There are two principal types of retrieval: There recall and recognition. • "What is the capital of Thailand?" is a "What question that requires recall. • the question "Do you know the woman in the this photograph?" requires recognition. Retrieval Retrieval • Web-like network of long-term memory, Web-like retrieval is a search along the strands of the web. • Many different paths to find the particular Many item • Each item is associated with many others Each and so is touched by many strands. • The more strands that touch the item you The seek, the easier it is to find that item Context-dependent memory Context-dependent • Event-related memories, Event-related • The context in which the memory was The learned is also included in associations • Used as a cue to retrieve the memory Used later later Mnemonics Mnemonics 1. First-letter conversion • Take the first letter of each item on a list Take and use them to spell out a short word or phrase. • Eg. ASAP • Easy and efficient but not as effective as Easy other mnemonics. Mnemonics (Cont.) Mnemonics 2. Peg word technique 2. • Uses visual imagery paired with key Uses rhyming phrases • Commonly used rhyming phrase is, "one Commonly is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree…“ is • Create a series of mental images that pair Create each grocery item with the numbered item in the phrase. Mnemonics (Cont.) Mnemonics • For example, remember to buy soap, For juice, and cookies, • Mentally picture a sandwich made of soap Mentally on a bun ("one is a bun"), on • A shoe filled with juice ("two is a shoe"), • A cookies hanging from a tree ("three is a cookies tree"). Mnemonics (Cont.) Mnemonics • Drawback • If use it too often, new items tend to get If confused with images from past lists. • For example, • need to buy milk at the store next week, I need could picture a shoe filled with milk, but, once I get to the store, I might mistakenly remember the juice-filled shoe instead. Mnemonics (Cont.) Mnemonics 3. method of loci 3. • Imagine a route you know well, such as the Imagine trip from your room to the kitchen in your house. • Choose several spots along that route, for Choose example, the doorknob of your room, the top of the stairs, the table in the hallway, etc. • Imagine yourself walking along that route Imagine and placing the items you want to remember in those chosen places. remember Mnemonics (Cont.) Mnemonics • For example, For – a bar of soap on my doorknob, bar – place a carton of juice at the top of the place stairs, stairs, – lleave a plate of cookies on the table eave downstairs. downstairs. • For each new route, imagine a new For list. You will avoid the confusion that can interfere with retrieving memories in the peg word method. Explicit memory Explicit • Any memory accompanied by the Any experience of remembering. • Memories of particular events are called Memories episodic memories, such as, "I remember when my uncle took me to Disneyland." • Memories for knowledge are called Memories semantic memories, such as, "I remember that the first president of the United States was George Washington was Implicit memory Implicit • Contains memories we don't even know Contains that we have • Can affect the actions we take and the Can choices we make • Memories of specific items influence the Memories way that people process information, without any conscious awareness. • Involved procedural learning such as how Involved to ride a bike or how to program a computer Errors in Memory Errors 1. Absent-mindedness • occurs when we don't devote enough attention occurs to an item to encode it sufficiently into memory. • For example, walk into your room and toss your For keys on the table without thinking about it (perhaps you are distracted by a ringing phone). Later, you may not be able to remember where you put them. The memory has not faded, rather it was never encoded into long-term storage at all. Errors in Memory (cont.) Errors 2. Blocking 2. • Occurs when the memory is intact, but we Occurs can't access it. – may not have quite the right cues to lead us to may the proper information, or the – may be retrieving other items that interfere may with the retrieval of the desired memory. • Feeling as though they have the memory Feeling but can't reach it: but – "I know the answer, I just can't think of it right "I now." Errors in Memory (cont.) Errors 3. Misattribution • Cause distortions to existing memories Cause • Information is correctly remembered, but is Information associated with an incorrect time, place, or person. Errors in Memory (cont.) Errors 4. Suggestibility 4. • Misleading suggestions can cause people to Misleading create entirely false memories. • They may believe that they heard or saw They something in fact it wasn't there due to questions or statements that strongly suggest its presence. • E.g. People heard the word "smashed," E.g. suggesting a more severe accident, were more likely to claim that there was broken glass present. Errors in Memory (cont.) Errors 5. Bias 5. • Distorted as a result of present knowledge Distorted and beliefs. • Show selective memory, remembering Show good or bad event or their memories might be changed to agree with their beliefs. • E.g. Depressed individuals often show a E.g. negative bias in their memories negative Errors in Memory (cont.) Errors 6. Persistence 6. • Events that he or she would prefer to Events forget. • Often seen in post-traumatic stress Often disorder. • Trauma victims seem to lose cognitive Trauma control over the retrieval of their traumacontrol related memories, so that the memories related are constantly being pulled into awareness by the slightest cue. awareness 10 Memory Improvement Tips 10 1. Focus your attention on the materials you 1. are studying. are • Attention is one of the major components Attention of memory. In order for information to move from short-term memory into longmove term memory, you need to actively attend term to this information. Try to study in a place free of distractions such as television, music, and other diversions. music, 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 2. Avoid cramming by establishing regular 2. study sessions. study • Studying materials over a number of Studying sessions gives you the time you need to adequately process the information. Research has shown that students who study regularly remember the material far better that those did all of their studying in one long session. one 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 3. Structure and organize the information 3. you are studying. • Researchers have found that information Researchers is organized in memory in related clusters. You can take advantage of this by structuring and organizing the materials you are studying. Try grouping similar concepts and terms together, or make an outline of your notes and textbook readings to help group related concepts. 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 4. Utilize mnemonic devices to remember 4. information. information. • Mnemonic devices are a technique often Mnemonic used by students to aid in recall. A mnemonic is simply a way to remember information. For example, you might associate a term you need to remember with a common item that you are very familiar with. 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 5. Elaborate and rehearse the information you are 5. studying. studying. • In order to recall information, you need to encode In what you are studying into long-term memory. One of the most effective encoding techniques is known as elaborative rehearsal. An example of this technique would be to read the definition of a key term, study the definition of that term, and then read a more detailed description of what that term means. After repeating this process a few times, your recall of the information will be far better. 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 6. Relate new information to things you 6. already know. already • When you are studying unfamiliar When material, take the time to think about how this information relates to things that you already know. By establishing relationships between new ideas and previously existing memories, you can dramatically increase the likelihood of recalling the recently learned information. recalling 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 7. Visualize concepts to improve memory 7. and recall. and • Many people benefit greatly from Many visualizing the information they study. Pay attention to the photographs, charts, and other graphics in your textbooks. If you don’t have visual cues to help, try creating your own. Draw charts or figures in the margins of your notes or use highlighters or pens in different colors to group related ideas in your written study materials. ideas 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 8. Teach new concepts to another person. • Research suggests that reading materials Research out loud significantly improves memory of the material. Educators and psychologists have also discovered that having students actually teach new concepts to others enhances understanding and recall. You can use this approach in your own study by teaching new concepts and information to a friend or study partner. 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 9. Pay extra attention to difficult information. • Have you ever noticed how it's sometimes easier Have to remember information at the beginning or end of a chapter? Researchers have found that the position of information can play a role in recall, which is known as the serial position effect. While recalling middle information can be difficult, you can overcome this problem by spending extra time rehearsing this information or try restructuring the information so it will be easier to remember. When you come across an especially difficult concept, devote some extra time to memorizing the information. information. 10 Memory Improvement Tips (cont.) 10 10. Vary your study routine. • Another great way to increase your recall is to Another occasionally change your study routine. If you are accustomed to studying in one specific location, try moving to a different spot to study. If you study in the evening, try to spend a few minutes each morning reviewing the information you studied the previous night. By adding an element of novelty to your study sessions, you can increase the effectiveness of your efforts and significantly improve your long-term recall. ...
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