Unformatted text preview: CO105 Communication II CO105
Lecture 3 Lecture Successful Learner Objectives
• define successful learning in terms of efficiency and effectiveness • identify and discuss factors which can affect learning processes and outcomes • discuss the relationship between skills and personal attributes and how they affect knowledge Two characteristics of learning: effectiveness and efficiency
• Effectiveness • roughly the same as ‘success’ • Achieve certain goals • Efficiency • relationship between input and output • The way (time and effort) to achieve goals Environmental Factors Affecting Learning • the culture of your university and your course • study/enrolment mode (on-campus, external) • teaching methods used for different study modes • course design and level • teaching style • teacher attitudes Environmental Factors Affecting Learning (cont.) • availability of resources • nature of assessment tasks • timing of assessment tasks • feedback mechanisms • availability of peer support • availability of other support Characteristics of a ‘successful learner’
• can set their own learning goals and determine appropriate strategies– ‘self-directed’ learning • can actively engage in acquiring attitudes, skills and knowledge that can be applied to new situations – ‘active’ learning • can learn from and with others – ‘collaborative’ learning and ‘independent’ learning • can effectively communicate what has been learned, whether orally or in writing • can self-assess learning success and take appropriate steps to remedy weaknesses. Factors affect you as a learner
• your prior knowledge • your prior experience • your skills and abilities • your values, attitudes and beliefs • your habits and practices • your learning preferences • your goals and motivations • your expectations of yourself, of your teachers, of others, and of the institution Activity
1. What are your long-term (10 years ahead) goals that led you to enroll in this course? 2. What are your medium-term (1 to 3 years ahead) goals in terms of this course? 3. What are your short-term goals (3 to 6 months ahead) related to this course? Why do we need to know our goals?
• Your goals reflect your priorities • Your goals are your future • Differing goals will affect your attitudes toward study and the ways you approach learning • Goals provide the energy source that powers our lives Skill & strategies
• different units/ mode of study require different skills and strategies • You need to accept responsibility for your learning • you need to understand your own role in the learning process Self-awareness
• the need to manage your time effectively and to prioritize appropriately • the need to become aware of resources that are available to you as a learner • the need to plan and organize your studies, and the benefits of using a problem-solving approach to achieve
– – – – understand what is expected examine your own strengths & weaknesses plan a response & apply your plan evaluate the results How to become active and intentional in learning ?
• take responsibility for your own learning (self-reliant) • plan your learning purposefully • make yourself aware of the tasks that are critical for success • consider the nature of the material to be studied, including how it is organized How to become active and intentional in learning ? (cont.)
• determine which learning strategies are appropriate (efficient and effective) • monitor your efforts in the learning process to see if your plan and your strategies are working • evaluate your learning to see whether you have achieved the goals & the learning objectives Cognitive psychology – the study of thinking the
The study of: The • how people reason through problems; how • how they allocate their mental resources; how • how they perceive the world around them; • how they remember past experiences; and how • how they describe the world with language. how Introduction to Attention Introduction
• Attention is what enables us to process Attention information about the world around us. information • When something "stands out," we notice When it, bringing it into our awareness, and then process or interpret it. • Attention can change rapidly, switching Attention from one thing to another. Introduction to Attention (cont.) Introduction
• It can be steered by our intentions ("topdown"), as when we look for a particular face down"), in a crowd, • It can be steered by features of objects in the It world ("bottom-up"), as when our attention is grabbed by a police car's flashing lights in our rearview mirror. • Pre-attentive processes help us decide what Pre-attentive to pay attention to and what to filter out and ignore. m ìì·ª E Dichotic listening
• In an experimental set-up called dichotic In listening, subjects hear two voices at once over a set of headphones. • Listen one of the voices and repeat each word Listen that it says as the words are spoken, a task called shadowing. This voice is called the attended voice, while the other voice is unattended. • Subjects become quite good at the shadowing Subjects task after a few minutes, repeating the attended speech quite accurately. Dichotic listening (cont.) Dichotic
• After a few minutes of shadowing, After subjects have no idea what the unattended voice was saying. • They are able to report basic features, They such as whether the voice was male or female, but are unable to remember anything about the content of the speech. • Dichotic listening provides evidence for Dichotic limits on attention. limits Broadbent's Filter Theory Broadbent's
• Broadbent: our mind can be conceived as a Broadbent: radio receiving many channels at once. • Each channel contains distinct sensory Each perceptions, as in the two auditory events in the dichotic listening task. • We only have enough resources to effectively We attend one channel a time. • We need some mechanism to limit the We information that we take in. • The filter processes all the stimuli we are The exposed to, and decides which to send through the attended channel. the "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up"
• The filter can be directed by top-down or The bottom-up influences. • Top-down influences include a person's Top-down own intentions and expectations.
– If I am trying to read a book, then my intention If to read will direct my attention to the words on the page, constituting a top-down influence. "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up" (cont.) (cont.)
• Bottom-up influences are directed by Bottom-up stimuli in the world that "catch" our attention.
– If someone taps me on the shoulder while I'm If reading, the tap will direct my attention away from the book and toward that person, constituting a bottom-up influence. Cocktail-Party Effect Cocktail-Party
• The cocktail-party effect is a combination The of top-down and bottom-up influences on attention. • At a party where many conversations are At going on at once. You can tune out other voices and pay attention only to the one that interests you • If someone at the next table mentions If your name, your attention will be suddenly drawn to that conversation. Cocktail-Party Effect (cont.) Cocktail-Party
• The cocktail-party effect also works for The other words of personal importance, such as the name of your favorite restaurant or a movie that you just saw, or the word "sex." • This effect is bottom-up in that it is driven This by a stimulus in the world; we do not intend to direct our attention to that other voice or conversation, Cocktail-Party Effect (cont.) Cocktail-Party
• It also depends on top-down influences in It that it hinges on what is important or familiar to a certain person. familiar • Stimuli are more likely to grab attention in Stimuli this way if they have been previously primed--that is, if they have been thought about recently or often. Sensory Store in Channel Theory Sensory
• Sometimes we may need to pay attention Sometimes to more than one channel at a time. • If the stimuli are different enough, we may If be able to pay attention to two things at once; • In cases where the stimuli are similar--for In example, a friend's voice and favorite singer on television--we must rapidly switch between the two channels. Sensory Store in Channel Theory (cont.) (cont.)
• This is possible because of sensory store, This a very short-term form of memory that stores what we hear and see, regardless of whether it was attended or not, for a period of a few seconds. • However, this is difficult, and most people However, find that they miss some information from each channel, so you may find yourself often asking your friend to repeat herself. Interference Interference
What is Interference? What • Because the information needs to process Because by the mind is so complex, there are normally many tasks running at once. • If the mind were a computer, it would have If many windows open at any one time. Interference (cont.) Interference
• For example, it might be running a wordprocessing program, an internet browser, processing and a media player all at once. • programs tend to run slower if there are programs many processes at one time, especially if one of the programs takes up a lot of the processor's resources. • Like a computer, the mind has a limited Like capacity, and tasks will slow down if there are too many running at once. Interference (cont.) Interference
• Interference describes the mental slowdown that result from the mind trying to do down too much at once. • Interference only occurs when two Interference processes draw on the same limited resource; resource; • If one task interferes with another, we can If say that they must both share a mental resource that is only available in limited quantities. Measuring Interference Measuring
• Interference is usually measured in Interference experiments by comparing completion times for a task when performed alone, and the same task when performed at the same time as another interfering task. Measuring Interference (cont.) Measuring
• For example, if I wanted to know if reading For interfered with multiplication, I could ask you to perform a simple multiplication problem and time how fast you came up with the correct answer. Then, I ask you to read a short passage. While you were reading, I ask you to do another multiplication problem and time your answer again. If your answer was slower than before, I could deduce that reading must interfere with multiplying. They share some limited processing resource. Interference across Tasks Interference
• Multiple tasks will usually show some Multiple interference with each other. In general, more difficult tasks that take up more attention cause more interference. • For example, most people can carry on a For conversation while washing dishes, but not while trying to untie a complex knot. Interference across Tasks (cont.) Interference
• In addition, those tasks that are more In similar to each other tend to cause more interference with each other. This similarity effect occurs because similar tasks tend to draw on many of the same resources, while different ones use skills that seldom overlap. Interference across Tasks (cont.) Interference
• However, difficult tasks still interfere with However, each other, no matter how different they may seem. • For example, driving and talking are very For dissimilar tasks. We know that drivers with mobile phones are more likely to have accidents because their concentration on the road is impaired by their conversations. Interference across Tasks (cont.) Interference
• This suggests the existence of a limited, This general processing resource that is used whenever we want to devote attention to a task. Thus, we can say that some general type of attention is needed for many different tasks. Attention is limited, and we use more attention for difficult tasks. Conclusion
• We have go through the characteristics of successful learner and the factors affecting learners in getting information, one of the important process in learning. • Through this lecture, you may understand more about the way you acquire information. Then review your learning characteristics in approaching to be a successful learner. ...
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- Spring '11