Lecture 10 - Rivers and Floods

Lecture 10 - Rivers and Floods - Earth Sci 2GG3 L10 Lecture...

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Earth Sci 2GG3 – L10 Lecture 10 – Rivers and Floods 1. Floods cause of most # of fatalities in US 2. Great Mississippi River Flood 1993 1. 100 miles 2 overwhelmed with rain 2. 10 million In damages 1. Hurricane Katrina 1. Breech of levees 2. Hard years of warning but no action led to all the damage 1. Floods can become the largest natural disaster Flooding Factors 1. Intensity and Duration of Precipitation 1. Flash foods 2. Sediment type and availability 1. Not enough sediment (New Orleans) 3. Land Use 1. Most ppl live on coast lines ( New Orleans) 4. Engineering Modifications 1. Levees – things we do to control floods makes them worse at times 1. Floods disasters in Canada 1. Southern Ontario – 6 flood disasters 2. Manitoba – Red River Flooding (1950 and 1997) 3. Maritimes – storm surges, hurricanes, NorWesters 1. As # of floods increases costs also increase (more people) Precipitation 1. Flooding from Precipitation 1. High intensity & short duration 1. Large amount of precipitation falling in a very short period; Flash Flood 1. Lower Intensity & Long Duration 1. Large amount of precipitation falls steadily over a longer time period
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Earth Sci 2GG3 – L10 1. 2 foot of water enough to move a car 1. Flash flood most common cause of death in Grand Canyon Watershed (Drainage Basin) 1. Drainage Basin (Watershed) 1. The upstream area from which surface water flows towards the channel 2. All rivers drain in here (ex. Lake Ontario) 1. Drainage Divide 1. Topographic line or boundary separating watersheds (ex. Mountain Range) Discharge 1. m 3 /s 2. measured volume of water flowing past a cross section of a river in a given amount of time 3. Q = vA 1. Q – discharge (m 3 /s) v – velocity (m/s) A – width x depth (in m) 1. Stream gauge
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