Lecture 11 - Tropical Cyclones

Lecture 11 - Tropical Cyclones - Earth Sci 2GG3 L11 Lecture...

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Earth Sci 2GG3 – L11 Lecture 11: Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes and Typhoons Formation of Tropical Cyclones 1. The main development regions are between 5deg and 27deg north and south of the equator 2. Low pressure warm air from ocean can rise and with it moisture is taken up 3. Convergence low P system; then Diverge 4. Heat released as water condenses and then rises again 5. Necessary conditions for formation include: 1. Warm ocean water (>26.5C) to a depth of 20 m 2. Convergence of air masses to form areas of low pressure 3. Coriolis effect 4. Low wind speeds aloft 1. Growth of a Tropical Cyclone 1. Tropical Disturbance 1. Thunderstorms developed in a zone of convergence can cluster 2. Condensation and release of latent heat continues to warm air 2. Tropical Depression 1. Minimum wind speed of 40km/h ; Low P system 2. Convection spiral and rotation develops as warm air spirals upward 3. Decreasing pressure at the surface increases wind speed and subsequent evaporation 3. Tropical Storm 1. Minimum wind speeds of 62 km/h 2. Eye forms as warm air from the high-pressure aloft is sucked down into the centre 4. Tropical Cyclone 1. Officially becomes a tropical cyclone when sustained wind speeds exceed 119km/h
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Earth Sci 2GG3 – L11 1. Structure of a Tropical Cyclone 1. Eye wall most precipitation, highest wind speeds 2. Counterclockwise in Northern Hemi Hurricane 3. Clockwise in Southern Hemi Typhoon Tracking Tropical Cyclones 1. Track can be monitored by satellite
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Lecture 11 - Tropical Cyclones - Earth Sci 2GG3 L11 Lecture...

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