Lec22 - MCB 102 Professor Markus Pauly 03/11/11 Lecture 22...

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MCB 102 Professor Markus Pauly 03/11/11 Lecture 22 ASUC Lecture Notes Online is the only authorized note-taking service at UC Berkeley. Do not share, copy, or illegally distribute (electronically or otherwise) these notes. Our student-run program depends on your individual subscription for its continued existence. These notes are copyrighted by the University of California and are for your personal use only. D O N O T C O P Y Sharing or copying these notes is illegal and could end note taking for this course. LECTURE I just wanted to go over the last slide of Wednesday’s lecture on amino acid oxidation. The citric acid cycle and the urea cycle are connected by fumarate and aspartate. Aspartate is produced from oxaloacetate through a transamination reaction. It then feeds into the urea cycle. Fumarate is produced from argininosuccinate in the urea cycle. It can feed into the citric acid cycle. In this lecture, we consider the fate of the high- energy electron carriers (e.g. NADH, FADH 2 ) produced from various processes and cycles. The electrons from these carriers are shuttled into the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. ATP is generated through oxidative phosphorylation (not substrate level phosphorylation). Mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes. The outer membrane of the mitochondria is permeable to small and charged molecules. The inner membrane is impermeable to small and charged molecules, such as protons. It folds into compartments called cristae in order to increase the surface area. Inside these folds is the matrix, where most processes take place. A dehydrogenase is an enzyme that oxidizes a substrate. The general reaction catalyzed by the dehydrogenase enzyme is as followed: Reduced substrate + NAD + Oxidized substrate + NADH + H + NADH is used for energy and NADPH is used for anabolism (synthesis of molecules). As NADH becomes oxidized, it loses its electrons. The electrons move down a reduction potential gradient through a series of carrier proteins. ATP is generated along the way. The final electron acceptor is oxygen and H 2 O is formed. The electron cascade of the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane can be viewed as followed: NADH Q (Ubiquinone) Cyt b (Cytochrome b) Cyt c 1 Cyt c Cyt (a + a 3 ) O 2 Cytochrome “a” types absorb at 600 nm, “b” types at 560 nm, and “c” types at 550 nm. Cytochromes are electron carriers made of proteins. They carry
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Lec22 - MCB 102 Professor Markus Pauly 03/11/11 Lecture 22...

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